Typha latifolia

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 971. 1753.

Common names: Broad-leaved cat-tail tule espedilla quenouille à feuilles larges
WeedyIllustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22. Treatment on page 282. Mentioned on page 283.

Erect shoots 150–300 cm; flowering shoots 1–2 cm thick in middle, stems 3–7 mm thick near inflorescence. Leaves: usually glaucous when fresh; sheath sides papery or membranous, margins narrowly clear, summit tapered into blade to distinctly shouldered, or rarely with firm, papery auricles; mucilage glands at sheath-blade transition usually colorless, obscure, absent from sheath center and blade; widest blades on shoot 10–23 (–29) mm wide when fresh, 5–20 mm when dry, distal blades about equaling inflorescence. Inflorescences: staminate spikes contiguous with pistillate or in some clones separated by to 4 (–8) cm of naked axis, about as long as pistillate, ca. 1–2 cm thick at anthesis; staminate scales colorless to straw-colored, filiform, simple, ca. 4 × 0.05 mm; pistillate spikes in flower pale green drying brownish, later blackish brown or reddish-brown, in fruit often mottled with whitish patches of pistil-hair tips, 5–25 cm × 5–8 mm in flower, 24–36 mm thick in fruit; compound pedicels in fruit bristlelike, variable in same spike, 1.5–3.5 mm; pistillate bracteoles absent. Staminate flowers 5–12 mm; anthers 1–3 mm, thecae yellow, apex dark-brown; pollen in tetrads. Pistillate flowers 2–3 mm in flower, 10–15 mm in fruit; pistil-hair tips colorless, whitish in mass, not enlarged; stigmas persistent, forming solid layer on spike surface, pale green in flower, drying brownish, then reddish-brown or usually distally blackish, spatulate, ovate to ovatelanceolate, 0.6–1 × 0.2–0.25 mm; carpodia exceeded by and hidden among pistil-hairs, straw-colored, apex rounded. Seeds numerous. 2n = 30.


Phenology: Flowering late spring–summer in north, spring–early summer in south.
Habitat: Fresh to slightly brackish water or wet soil
Elevation: 0–2300 m

Distribution

V22 435-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Idaho., Ill., Ind., Iowa., Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Mexico, Central America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia (Tasmania ())

Discussion

The erect shoots of Typha latifolia are more fanlike when young than in other North American species because the proximal leaves (dying by mid season) spread more widely. Undoubtedly native throughout its North American range, where it is often a codominant or minor component of marshes, wet meadows, fens, and other communities. In many places it is apparently being replaced by T. angustifolia and T. angustifolia × T. latifolia (T. ×glauca) at least partly due to human disturbance of habitats. There is a specimen of T. xglauca from Anticosti Island, Quebec. Locally in California and perhaps elsewhere where hybrids are common, the pollen grains of some T. latifolia plants separate slightly and may be shed partly as mixtures of triads, dyads, and monads, perhaps due to introgression ([S. G. Smith, unpublisheddeletion.). Ph.D. thesis]. See also hybrids in key and genus.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Typha latifolia"
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
dark-brown +
papery +  and firm +
S. Galen Smith +
Linnaeus +
persistent +
club-shaped +  and lanceoloid +
early-deciduous +
subtending +
straw-colored +
Broad-leaved cat-tail +, tule espedilla +  and quenouille à feuilles larges +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa. +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Mexico +, Central America +, South America +, Eurasia +, Africa +  and Australia (Tasmania ()) +
0–2300 m +
cylindric +
pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +
numerous +  and several +
wind-pollinated +  and unisexual +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
colorless;brown +
rectangular +
Fresh to slightly brackish water or wet soil +
spikelike +  and cylindric +
cauline +  and basal +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
Flowering late spring–summer in north, spring–early summer in south. +
brown +  and colorless +
whitish +  and colorless +
kaul1974a +, rowlatt1992a +  and yeo1964a +
firm +  and starchy +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
simple +  and staminate +
colorless;straw-colored +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (?) +
filiform +
membranous +  and papery +
150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br /> (300 cm3,000 mm <br />3 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
Weedy +  and Illustrated +
pistillate +  and staminate +
separated +  and contiguous +
reddish-brown +, blackish brown +, brownish +  and drying +
persisting +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br /> (3.6 cm36 mm <br />0.036 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
compressed +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
blackish +, reddish-brown +, brownish +  and pale green +
persistent +
0.6mm;1mm +
ovate +  and ovatelanceolate +
0.2mm;0.25mm +
rudimentary +
Typha latifolia +
species +
caulescent +  and rhizomatous +