Vanilla planifolia

Jackson

Bot. Repos. 8: plate 538. 1808.

Common names: Vanilla commercial vanilla vanilla vine
Synonyms: Myrobroma fragrans Salisbury Vanilla fragrans (Salisbury) Ames
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 510. Mentioned on page 507, 508, 509.

Roots usually 1 per node, aerial portions 2–3 mm diam. Stems occasionally branched, leafy, thick, 5–10 mm diam., smooth. Leaves persistent; blade flat, oblongelliptic to ovate, longer than internodes, 15–25 × 5–8 cm, fleshy-leathery, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences axillary, 15-flowered racemes, short-pedunculate, to 5 cm excluding peduncle; floral bracts broadly-triangular-ovate, 7–10 × 7–10 cm, leathery. Flowers: sepals and petals erect-spreading, yellow-green, fleshy, rigid; sepals oblanceolate, 3.5–5.5 × 1.1–1.3 cm, margins straight, apex acute to obtuse; petals elliptic-oblanceolate, abaxially keeled, thinner than sepals, 3.5–5.5 × 1.1–1.3 cm, apex acute to obtuse; lip adnate to column for 1.5–2 cm, yellow-green, becoming dark yellow toward apex, lamina gulletlike, cuneate, rhomboid, 4–5 × ± 3 cm, with apical retuse lobule; disc with central tuft of retrorse scales, several lines of short, fleshy hairs extending to apex; column white, slender, 3–3.5 cm, margins slightly sinuate, adaxially bearded; pollinia yellow; pedicellate ovary 3–5 cm. Berries cylindric, 15–25 × 0.8–1 cm.


Phenology: Flowering Apr.
Habitat: Cypress swamps, hammocks
Elevation: 0–20 m

Distribution

V26 1039-distribution-map.jpg

Fla., Mexico, West Indies (Trinidad), Central America, n South America

Discussion

The long, slender black fruits of Vanilla planifolia are the vanilla “beans” of commerce.

The natural distribution of Vanilla planifolia is most likely tropical evergreen forests of eastern Mexico and the Caribbean watersheds of Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras (M. Soto Arenas, pers. comm.). It has been cultivated and escaped or persisted in many areas of the tropics, including south Florida. It is known in the flora area from Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park, Miami, Miami-Dade County, Florida (P. M. Brown 2002).

Pollinators are euglossine bees (J. D. Ackerman 1983), which do not occur in Florida. Natural pollination has been recorded in Florida, although very rarely (C. A. Luer 1972).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Vanilla planifolia"
self-pollination +
Acute (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
James D. Ackerman +
Jackson +
indehiscent +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (?) +  and 25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (?) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (?) +  and 1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
not +  and articulate +
conduplicate +  and plicate +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
oblongelliptic +  and ovate +
5cm;8cm +
semiterete +  and elongate +
slender +
3cm +  and 3.5cm +
Vanilla +, commercial vanilla +  and vanilla vine +
ornamented +
Fla. +, Mexico +, West Indies (Trinidad) +, Central America +  and n South America +
0–20 m +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
3-merous +, sessile +  and pedicellate +
Cypress swamps, hammocks +
4 +  and 5 +
rhomboid +, cuneate +  and gulletlike +
sheathless +  and articulate +
persistent +
cauline +  and basal +
reduced +
leathery +  and fleshy +
dark yellow +  and yellow-green +
larger +
differing in form and color +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1-many-flowered +  and cymose +
pendent +  and erect +
free +  and distinct +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
erect-spreading +
rigid +  and fleshy +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr. +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Bot. Repos. +
short-pedunculate +  and 15-flowered +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
gray-green +
aerial +  and subterranean +
villous +  and glabrous +
slender +
yellow-green +
free +  and distinct +
erect-spreading +
oblanceolate +
rigid +  and fleshy +
not +  and alike +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
leafy +  and branched +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
pendent +  and erect +
proliferous +
thickened +  and stout +
succulent +
concave +  and convex +
Myrobroma fragrans +  and Vanilla fragrans +
Vanilla planifolia +
species +
triangular +
annual +  and perennial +
hemiepiphytic +  and terrestrial +
saprophytic +, photosynthetic +  and mycotrophic +