Viola sagittata var. ovata

(Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray

Fl. N. Amer. 1: 138. 1838.

Common names: Northern downy or sand violet violette à feuilles frangées
Endemic
Basionym: Viola ovata Nuttall Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1: 148. 1818
Synonyms: V. amorphophylla Pollard V. fimbriatula Smith V. ovata var. hicksii (Pollard) Pollard V. sagittata var. hicksii Pollard
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 156.

Leaves: earliest blades ovate to widely ovate; mid-season blades ovate to elliptic, 1–8 × 1–4.5 cm, base truncate, attenuate, slightly sagittate or hastate, or ± cordate, margins crenate or serrate, ciliate, surfaces usually densely pubescent. Sepal margins ciliate. Cleistogamous flowers on prostrate to ascending peduncles. 2n = 54.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jun.
Habitat: Dry, open woods and thickets, disturbed ground, roadsides, powerline rights-of-way
Elevation: 10–1000 m

Distribution

V6 279-distribution-map.jpg

N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Conn., Del., D.C., Ill., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Variety ovata was known as Viola fimbriatula by those who considered it a distinct species. Torrey and Gray were the first to recognize its affinity with V. sagittata. The early leaf-blade structure is similar in var. ovata and var. sagittata and both have prominent sepal auricles on cleistogamous flowers (L. E. McKinney 1992).

Fernald described Viola fimbriatula forma umbelliflora, an apparently rare taxon from Halifax, Nova Scotia, in which flowers occur in umbels of three. H. J. Scoggan (1978–1979) included forma umbelliflora under Viola sagittata. Study is needed of this taxon because umbels are otherwise unknown in North American species of Viola. Several species in the Hawaiian Islands produce umbellate inflorescences with up to five flowers (W. L. Wagner et al. 1990).

Variety ovata reportedly hybridizes with V. sagittata var. sagittata (= V. ×abundans House).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thick" is not a number.

not +  and prominent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
R. John Little +  and Landon E. McKinney† +
(Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray +
cordate +, hastate +, sagittate +, attenuate +  and truncate +
Viola ovata +
overlapping +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
eciliate +  and ciliate +
ovate +  and elliptic +
1cm;4.5cm +
muriculate +
ellipsoid +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
Northern downy or sand violet +  and violette à feuilles frangées +
N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ill. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
shape +  and width +
crenate +, lobed +, incised +, deltate +, elliptic +  and ovate +
shape +  and width +
ovate +  and widely ovate +
shape +  and width +
crenate +, cordate +, attenuate +, truncate +, hastate +, sagittate +, lobed +, incised +, deltate +, elliptic +  and ovate +
ovoid +  and spheroid +
10–1000 m +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
lateral +  and upper +
2 +  and produced in summer , apetalous or petals +
cleistogamous +
3-valved +  and capsular +
loculicidal +
Dry, open woods and thickets, disturbed ground, roadsides, powerline rights-of-way +
stoloniferous +, rhizomatous +, taprooted +  and simple +
scattered +  and concentrated +
variously--shaped +
1(-3)[-5]-flowered +
petiolate +  and simple +
unlobed +
not narrowed +
eciliate +  and ciliate +
syngenesious +
crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
lateral +, lowest +  and lower +
2 +  and 3 +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Jun. +
[2-]3[-5]-carpellate +
Fl. N. Amer. +
deep-seated +
ovoid;spherical +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
subequal +
longitudinal +
acaulescent +  and caulescent +
light +  and dark violet +
elongated +
gibbous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
adherent +, not adherent +  and distinct +
leafy +  and simple +
shallow +
deciduous +
prostrate +  and decumbent +
vertical;horizontal;erect;ascending +
subligneous +  and fleshy +
hollow +  and solid +
beardless +  and bearded +
enlarged +
V. amorphophylla +, V. fimbriatula +, V. ovata var. hicksii +  and V. sagittata var. hicksii +
Viola sagittata var. ovata +
Viola sagittata +
variety +
not stoloniferous +  and acaulescent +
prostrate +  and erect +
hairy +  and glabrous +