Xanthium spinosum

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 987. 1753.

Common names: Spiny cocklebur clotbur lampourde épineuse
Synonyms: Xanthium ambrosioides Hooker & Arnott Xanthium spinosum var. inerme Bel
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 19. Mentioned on page 20.

Plants 10–60 (–120+) cm; nodal spines usually in pairs, simple or 2–3-partite, 15–30+ mm. Leaves: petioles 1–15 (–25+) mm; blades ± ovate to lanceolate or lance-linear, 4–8 (–12+) × 1–3 (–5+) cm, often pinnately 3 (–7+) -lobed, abaxial faces gray to white, densely strigose. Burs 10–12 (–15+) mm. 2n = 36.


Phenology: Flowering Jul–Oct.
Habitat: Damp or seasonally wet, alkaline soils, waste places, margins of agriculture
Elevation: 10–1000 m

Distribution

V21-28-distribution-map.gif

N.B., Ont., Que., Sask., Ala., Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Va., Wash., W.Va., Mexico, Central America, South America, widely established in Old World

Discussion

Some authors have contended that Xanthium spinosum originated in South America and is introduced and/or naturalized everywhere else that it is found.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Xanthium spinosum"
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
gray +  and white +
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
spiciform +, racemiform +, paniculiform +, glomerate +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John L. Strother +
Linnaeus +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
3(-7+)-lobed;less ovate;lanceolate or lance-linear +
1cm;3cm +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
2-chambered +  and prickly +
Spiny cocklebur +, clotbur +  and lampourde épineuse +
villous +, strigillose +, hispidulous +, glabrous +  and warty +
scabrellous +  and tuberculate +
fertile +  and bisexual +
N.B. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Mexico +, Central America +, South America +  and widely established in Old World +
10–1000 m +
strigose +  and hirtellous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Damp or seasonally wet, alkaline soils, waste places, margins of agriculture +
staminate +, pistillate +, racemiform +  and spiciform +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
membranous +  and scarious +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
saucer--shaped;ellipsoid +
conspicuous +
reflexed;erect +
deltate +
dentate to pinnatifid or palmatifid +  and entire +
connate +  and distinct +
2-carpellate +
hirtellous +  and villous +
spatulate;cuneiform or linear +
membranous +
persistent +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Flowering Jul–Oct. +
6 +  and 16 +
unequal +  and subequal +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
conic;columnar +
exalbuminous +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Xanthium ambrosioides +  and Xanthium spinosum var. inerme +
Xanthium spinosum +
Xanthium +
species +
campanulate +  and cylindric +
distinct +
hooked +
toothed +  and entire +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +