Xanthium strumarium

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 987. 1753.

Common names: Cocklebur lampourde glouteron
Illustrated
Synonyms: Xanthium americanum Walter Xanthium chasei Fernald Xanthium chinense Miller Xanthium curvescens Millspaugh & Sherff Xanthium cylindricum Millspaugh & Fernald Xanthium echinatum Murray Xanthium echinellum Greene ex Rydberg Xanthium globosum C. Schull Xanthium inflexum Mackenzie & Bush Xanthium italicum Moretti Xanthium orientale Linnaeus Xanthium oviforme Wallroth Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallroth Xanthium speciosum Kearney Xanthium strumarium var. canadense (Miller) Torrey & A. Gray Xanthium strumarium var. glabratum (de Candolle) Cronquist Xanthium varians Xanthium wootonii
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 19.

Plants 10–80 (–200) cm; nodal spines 0. Leaves: petioles 20–100 (–140+) mm; blades suborbiculate to ± pentagonal or deltate, 4–12 (–18+) × 3–10 (–18+) cm, sometimes palmately 3–5-lobed, abaxial faces green, hirtellous. Burs 10–30+ mm. 2n = 36.


Phenology: Flowering Jul–Oct.
Habitat: Damp or seasonally wet, often alkaline, soils, waste places, margins of agriculture
Elevation: 10–2000 m

Distribution

V21-27-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Mexico, Central America, South America, widely in Old World

Discussion

Recognition of a dozen or more taxa (treated as species, subspecies, varieties, and/or forms) has been proposed for plants treated together here as Xanthium strumarium. Bases for the various taxa mostly involved subtle differences in the burs.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Xanthium strumarium"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
spiciform +, racemiform +, paniculiform +, glomerate +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John L. Strother +
Linnaeus +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
3-5-lobed;suborbiculate;more or less pentagonal or deltate +
3cm;10cm +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
2-chambered +  and prickly +
Cocklebur +  and lampourde glouteron +
villous +, strigillose +, hispidulous +, glabrous +  and warty +
scabrellous +  and tuberculate +
fertile +  and bisexual +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Mexico +, Central America +, South America +  and widely in Old World +
10–2000 m +
strigose +  and hirtellous +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
Damp or seasonally wet, often alkaline, soils, waste places, margins of agriculture +
staminate +, pistillate +, racemiform +  and spiciform +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
membranous +  and scarious +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
saucer--shaped;ellipsoid +
conspicuous +
reflexed;erect +
deltate +
dentate to pinnatifid or palmatifid +  and entire +
connate +  and distinct +
2-carpellate +
hirtellous +  and villous +
spatulate;cuneiform or linear +
membranous +
persistent +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
Flowering Jul–Oct. +
6 +  and 16 +
unequal +  and subequal +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
conic;columnar +
exalbuminous +
Illustrated +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Xanthium americanum +, Xanthium chasei +, Xanthium chinense +, Xanthium curvescens +, Xanthium cylindricum +, Xanthium echinatum +, Xanthium echinellum +, Xanthium globosum +, Xanthium inflexum +, Xanthium italicum +, Xanthium orientale +, Xanthium oviforme +, Xanthium pensylvanicum +, Xanthium speciosum +, Xanthium strumarium var. canadense +, Xanthium strumarium var. glabratum +, Xanthium varians +  and Xanthium wootonii +
Xanthium strumarium +
Xanthium +
species +
campanulate +  and cylindric +
distinct +
hooked +
toothed +  and entire +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +