Alopecurus geniculatus

L.
Common names: Water foxtail Vulpin genicule
Synonyms: Alopecurus pallescens
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 784.
Please click on the illustration for a higher resolution version.
Illustrator: Cindy Roché

Copyright: Utah State University

Plants perennial; cespitose. Culms (5) 10-60 cm, erect or decumbent, rooting at the lower nodes. Ligules 2-5 mm, obtuse; blades 2-12 cm long, 1-4 (7) mm wide; upper sheaths somewhat inflated. Panicles 1.5-7 cm long, 4-8 mm wide. Glumes 1.9-3.5 mm, connate at the base, membranous, pubescent, keels not winged, ciliate, apices obtuse, parallel, often purplish; lemmas 2.5-3 mm, connate in the lower 1/2, glabrous or with a few scattered hairs at the apices, apices truncate to obtuse, awns 3-5 (6) mm, geniculate, exceeding the lemmas by (1.2) 2-4 mm; anthers (0.9) 1.4-2.2 mm, yellow. Caryopses 1-1.5 mm. 2n = 28.

Distribution

Wash., Va., D.C., Wis., Minn., N.Dak., Okla., S.Dak., Conn., Mass., Maine, N.H., R.I., Vt., Wyo., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., Pa., Calif., Nev., Ariz., Iowa, Md., Mich., Ohio, Tex., Utah, W.Va., Colo., Alaska, Ill., Idaho, Alta., B.C., Greenland, N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Mont., Oreg.

Discussion

Alopecurus geniculatus is native to Eurasia and parts of North America, growing in shallow water, ditches, open wet meadows, shores, and streambanks, from lowland to montane zones. It has been naturalized in eastern North America. The status of populations in the west, including the Queen Charlotte Islands in British Columbia, is less certain. Many occur in moist sites within native rangeland, but these areas have also been affected by European settlement, although less intensively and for a shorter period than those in eastern North America.

Alopecurus xhaussknechtianus Asch. 5c Graebn. is a hybrid between A. geniculatus and A. aequalis, which occurs fairly frequently in areas of sympatry, particularly in drier midcontinental areas from Alberta to Saskatchewan, south to Arizona and New Mexico. The hybrids are sterile and appear to have 2n = 14.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Alopecurus geniculatus"
membranous +  and scarious +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (?) +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br />) +
straight +
midlength +
Truncate (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
William J. Crins +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
geniculate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
midlength +
swelling +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
not evident +
scabrous +  and glabrous +
involute +  and flat +
1mm;4mm +
spikelike +
Water foxtail +  and Vulpin genicule +
solitary +  and clumped +
decumbent +  and erect +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
not woody +
Wash. +, Va. +, D.C. +, Wis. +, Minn. +, N.Dak. +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, Conn. +, Mass. +, Maine +, N.H. +, R.I. +, Vt. +, Wyo. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, Pa. +, Calif. +, Nev. +, Ariz. +, Iowa +, Md. +, Mich. +, Ohio +, Tex. +, Utah +, W.Va. +, Colo. +, Alaska +, Ill. +, Idaho +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Greenland +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Mont. +  and Oreg. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
sterile +  and bisexual +
compressed +
reduced +
shorter or longer +
unequal +
0.19 cm1.9 mm <br />0.0019 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
membranous +
exceeding the florets +  and equaling +
narrowing +
uncinate +
capitate +  and cylindrical +
1-7(9)-veined +
with a few scattered hairs +  and glabrous +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
membranous +
glabrous +  and puberulent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
reduced +
1.5cm +  and 7cm +
spikelike +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
not prolonged +
1 +  and 60 +
oval +  and compressed +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Alopecurus pallescens +
Alopecurus geniculatus +
Alopecurus +
species +
membranous +
parallel +  and converging +
plant +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +