Alopecurus magellanicus

Lam.
Common names: Foxtail Boreal foxtail Vulpin alpin Vulpin boreale
Synonyms: Alopecurus occidentalis Alopecurus borealis Alopecurus alpinus subsp. glaucus Alopecurus alpinus
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 782.
Please click on the illustration for a higher resolution version.
Illustrator: Cindy Roché

Copyright: Utah State University

Plants perennial; shortly rhizomatous. Culms (6) 10-80 cm, erect or decumbent. Ligules 1-2 mm, truncate; blades 4-22 cm long, 2.5-7 mm wide; upper sheaths inflated. Panicles 1-5 cm long, 8-14 mm wide. Glumes 3-5 mm, connate in the lower 1/8, membranous, densely pilose throughout, keels not winged, ciliate, apices acute and parallel; lemmas 2.5-4.5 mm, connate in the lower 1/2 - 2/3, glabrous proximally, finely pubescent distally, apices usually obtuse, occasionally truncate, awns 2-6 (8) mm, geniculate, exceeding the lemmas by 0-5 mm; anthers 2.3-3 mm, yellow. Caryopses 0.7-2 mm. 2n = 98, 100, 105, 112, 117, 119, ca. 120.

Distribution

Colo., Alta., B.C., Greenland, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Man., N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Utah, Alaska, Mont., Idaho, Wyo.

Discussion

Alopecurus magellanicus has an arctic-alpine to subalpine circumpolar distribution, but it has not been found in Scandinavia or Iceland. It grows primarily in wet soils in tundra, meadows, along streams, shorelines, gravelbars, and floodplains, and occasionally in somewhat drier forest openings, in fine or silty to stony soils or moss. It is sometimes co-dominant with Dupontia fisheri in the arctic and subarctic portion of its range. The anthocyanic tint of the plant as a whole greatly increases to the north.

In the past, this species has been called Alopecurus alpinus, the name being attributed to Smith. Dogan (1999) pointed out that the name had first been used by Villars for a different species, which meant that this species had to have another name; Dogan used A. borealis Trin., listing A. magellanicus as a synonym but, because A. magellanicus was published first, it has priority and is therefore the correct name.

The morphological variability in Alopecurus magellanicus has prompted recognition of several segregate taxa, A. stejnegeri Vasey and A. occidentalis Scribn. & Tweedy being two of the more conspicuous extremes. The former are small plants occurring on enriched sites in the arctic, usually around seabird or seal colonies where high nutrient levels produce lush vegetative growth; the latter refers to tall-stemmed plants found in the Rocky Mountains. Because such plants are simply extremes in a continuum of variation, they do not merit taxonomic recognition.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Alopecurus magellanicus"
120 +, 119 +, 117 +, 112 +, 105 +, 100 +  and 98 +
membranous +  and scarious +
0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
straight +
midlength +
Obtuse (?) +  and Acute (?) +
William J. Crins +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
geniculate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
midlength +
swelling +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (22 cm220 mm <br />0.22 m <br />) +
not evident +
scabrous +  and glabrous +
involute +  and flat +
2.5mm;7mm +
spikelike +
Foxtail +, Boreal foxtail +, Vulpin alpin +  and Vulpin boreale +
not branching +
solitary +  and clumped +
decumbent +  and erect +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (80 cm800 mm <br />0.8 m <br />) +
not woody +
Colo. +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Greenland +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Man. +, N.W.T. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Utah +, Alaska +, Mont. +, Idaho +  and Wyo. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
sterile +  and bisexual +
compressed +
reduced +
shorter or longer +
unequal +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
membranous +
exceeding the florets +  and equaling +
narrowing +
uncinate +
capitate +  and cylindrical +
1-7(9)-veined +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
membranous +
glabrous +  and puberulent +
entire +  and lacerate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
reduced +
1cm +  and 5cm +
spikelike +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
not prolonged +
1 +  and 60 +
oval +  and compressed +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Alopecurus occidentalis +, Alopecurus borealis +, Alopecurus alpinus subsp. glaucus +  and Alopecurus alpinus +
Alopecurus magellanicus +
Alopecurus +
species +
membranous +
parallel +  and converging +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +