Alopecurus pratensis

L.
Common names: Meadow foxtail Vulpin des pres
Introduced
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 782.
Please click on the illustration for a higher resolution version.
Illustrator: Cindy Roché

Copyright: Utah State University

Plants perennial; shortly rhizomatous. Culms 30-110 cm, erect. Ligules 1.5-3 mm, obtuse to truncate; blades 6-40 cm long, 1.9-8 mm wide; upper sheaths not or scarcely inflated. Panicles 3.5-9 cm long, 6-10 mm wide. Glumes 4-6 mm, connate in the lower 1/5-1/4, membranous, sides pubescent, keels not winged, finely ciliate, apices acute, parallel or convergent; lemmas 4-6 mm, connate in the lower 1/3, usually glabrous, keels sometimes ciliate distally, apices acute, awns 5-10.5 mm, geniculate, exceeding the lemmas by (1) 2.2-5.5 mm; anthers 2-4 mm, yellowish, orange, reddish, or purplish, sometimes varying within a population. Caryopses 1-1.2 mm. 2n = 28, 42.

Distribution

N.Dak., Nebr., Wash., Del., D.C., Wis., Alta., B.C., Greenland, Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., N.W.T., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, W.Va., Conn., Mass., Maine, N.H., N.Y., R.I., Vt., Wyo., N.J., N.Mex., Tenn., Pa., Calif., Nev., Va., Colo., Md., Alaska, Ala., Ill., Ga., Ind., Iowa, Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Ohio, Utah, Mo., Minn., Mich., Kans., Ky., S.Dak.

Discussion

Alopecurus pratensis is native from temperate northern Eurasia south to North Africa. It is now widely naturalized in temperate regions throughout the world. It grows in poorly to somewhat drained soils in meadows, riverbanks, lakesides, ditches, roadsides, and fence rows. It has been widely introduced as a pasture grass; it may also have become established from ballast or imported hay. The earliest collections are from coastal New England; it is now established throughout much of the Flora region.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Alopecurus pratensis"
membranous +  and scarious +
purplish +, reddish +, orange +  and yellowish +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
convergent +  and parallel +
straight +
midlength +
William J. Crins +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
straight +
basal +  and terminal +
geniculate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.05 cm10.5 mm <br />0.0105 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
midlength +
swelling +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
not evident +
scabrous +  and glabrous +
involute +  and flat +
1.9mm;8mm +
spikelike +
Meadow foxtail +  and Vulpin des pres +
not branching +
solitary +  and clumped +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (110 cm1,100 mm <br />1.1 m <br />) +
not woody +
N.Dak. +, Nebr. +, Wash. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Wis. +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Greenland +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, W.Va. +, Conn. +, Mass. +, Maine +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, R.I. +, Vt. +, Wyo. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, Tenn. +, Pa. +, Calif. +, Nev. +, Va. +, Colo. +, Md. +, Alaska +, Ala. +, Ill. +, Ga. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Oreg. +, Ohio +, Utah +, Mo. +, Minn. +, Mich. +, Kans. +, Ky. +  and S.Dak. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
sterile +  and bisexual +
compressed +
reduced +
shorter or longer +
unequal +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
exceeding the florets +  and equaling +
narrowing +
uncinate +
capitate +  and cylindrical +
1/5 +  and 1/4 +
membranous +
1-7(9)-veined +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
membranous +
glabrous +  and puberulent +
obtuse +  and truncate +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
reduced +
3.5cm +  and 9cm +
spikelike +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
not prolonged +
1/5 +  and 1/4 +
Introduced +
1 +  and 60 +
oval +  and compressed +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Gramineae +
Alopecurus pratensis +
Alopecurus +
species +
membranous +
parallel +  and converging +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +