Endemic
Synonyms: Amelanchier canadensis var. subintegra Fernald A. oblongifolia
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 659. Mentioned on page 658.

Shrubs, 0.5–8 m. Stems 1–25, in open to dense colonies. Leaves: blade oblong to oblongelliptic or narrowly oblong-obovate, (24–) 35–48 (–67) × (12–) 20–27 (–42) mm, base rounded, apex subacute to rounded and mucronate, abaxial surface glabrous to moderately hairy, adaxial glabrous or sparsely (moderately) hairy. Inflorescences (3–) 7–10 (–15) -flowered, usually loose, (12–) 21–37 (–74) mm. Pedicels: 0 or 1 (or 2) subtended by a leaf, proximalmost (6–) 8–14 (–17) mm. Flowers: sepals erect or spreading after flowering, (0.3–) 2.1–3.1 (–4.6) mm; petals linear to oblong, (4–) 7–10.2 (–15) × (1.8–) 3–4 (–5.3) mm; stamens (15–) 19–20 (–21); styles (3–) 5. Pomes maroon-purple, 7–10 mm diam. 2n = 2x, 4x.


Phenology: Flowering Mar–May; fruiting Jun–Jul.
Habitat: Damp soil of swamps, wet streamheads, bogs, moist to wet thickets, woods
Elevation: 0–200 m

Distribution

V9 1132-distribution-map.jpg

N.B., N.S., P.E.I., Que., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Maine, Md., Mass., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va.

Discussion

The dense colonies of larger plants, erect inflorescences, usually glabrous ovary apices, and sepals that are erect or ascending after flowering are, in combination, distinctive for var. canadensis. Unusual features are its restriction mostly to the Atlantic coastal plain and tolerance of hydric soils. The variety is abundant in forested wetlands and ecotones with fresh-tidal marshes in the Chesapeake Bay region. K. M. Wiegand (1912) and C. T. Frye (2006) noted that the inflorescence of var. canadensis does not elongate much following flowering.

Variety canadensis is remarkably plastic in habit, flowering at heights of less than 0.5 m in thin soils and growing to 8 m in better conditions. New Brunswick plus eastern Maine and Maryland plus Virginia have dwarf variants that do not appear to be edaphic. Fernald distinguished var. subintegra, which grows in low pine barrens of southeastern Virginia, by leaf blades that are entire or toothed only near the apex.

Variety canadensis is morphologically close to three species of eastern North America that have finely toothed leaves, glabrous ovary apices, and often grow into trees: Amelanchier arborea, A. intermedia, and A. laevis.

Variety canadensis generally flowers at about the same time as Amelanchier laevis. M. L. Fernald (1950) and J. E. Cruise (1964) reported that it hybridizes with A. arborea, A. intermedia, A. laevis, and A. spicata. Hybrids with A. arborea appear to be common and some microspecies may result. C. T. Frye (2006) reported morphologic evidence of introgression with A. obovalis. Tetraploid var. canadensis is self-compatible and produces seeds asexually (C. S. Campbell et al. 1987); diploids are self-incompatible and sexual (C. T. Frye, unpubl.).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
glabrous +  and moderately hairy +
hairy +  and glabrous +
hairy +, glabrous +, glabrous or +  and sparsely moderately hairy +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and hairy +
Christopher S. Campbell +, Michael B. Burgess +, Kevin R. Cushman +, Eric T. Doucette +, Alison C. Dibble +  and Christopher T. Frye +
(Linnaeus) Medikus +
fissuring in older trees +  and smooth +
salmon colored +, brown +  and gray +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
rounded +
Mespilus canadensis +
4.8 cm48 mm <br />0.048 m <br /> (6.7 cm67 mm <br />0.067 m <br />) +
2.7 cm27 mm <br />0.027 m <br /> (4.2 cm42 mm <br />0.042 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (4.8 cm48 mm <br />0.048 m <br />) +
oblong +  and oblongelliptic or narrowly oblong-obovate +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
20mm +  and 27mm +
adnate +  and connate +
N.B. +, N.S. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +  and Va. +
not +  and aggregated +
0–200 m +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
purplish +  and nearly black pinkish or maroon-purple dark purple-blue or brownish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Damp soil of swamps, wet streamheads, bogs, moist to wet thickets, woods +
glabrous +  and hairy +
(3-)7-10(-15)-flowered +
3.7 cm37 mm <br />0.037 m <br /> (7.4 cm74 mm <br />0.074 m <br />) +
nodding +, spreading +, drooping +, erect +, ascending +  and arching +
2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br /> (3.7 cm37 mm <br />0.037 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
deciduous +
pinnate +, dentate +, serrate +  and entire +
toothed +, unlobed +  and lobed +
6-10-loculed +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
1.02 cm10.2 mm <br />0.0102 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.53 cm5.3 mm <br />0.0053 m <br />) +
Pink (?) +, Ivory (?) +  and White (?) +
free +  and distinct +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.02 cm10.2 mm <br />0.0102 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Flowering Mar–May +  and fruiting Jun–Jul. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
maroon-purple +  and purplish black +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
Gesch. Bot., +
4-17-flowered +
not arillate +
0.31 cm3.1 mm <br />0.0031 m <br /> (0.46 cm4.6 mm <br />0.0046 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
spreading +  and erect +
triangular +  and lanceolate +
0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br /> (0.31 cm3.1 mm <br />0.0031 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
stoloniferous +
erect +  and ascending +
1 +  and 25 +
0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br /> (0.58 cm5.8 mm <br />0.0058 m <br />) +
persistent +
connate +  and distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
elongate +
0.34 cm3.4 mm <br />0.0034 m <br /> (0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br />) +
Amelanchier canadensis var. subintegra +  and A. oblongifolia +
Amelanchier canadensis var. canadensis +
Amelanchier canadensis +
variety +
6 +  and 15 +
inconspicuous +