Amelanchier sanguinea

(Pursh) de Candolle in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle

in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 2: 633. 1825.

Common names: Red-twigged shadbush amélanchier sanguin
EndemicIllustrated
Basionym: Pyrus sanguinea Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 340. 1813
Synonyms: Amelanchier huronensis Wiegand
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 653. Mentioned on page 649, 654, 655, 657, 658, 661.

Shrubs or small trees, 1–7 m. Stems 1–20, ± colonial. Leaves fully unfolded or nearly so; petiole (8–) 11.3–18.1 (–25) mm; blade elliptic-oblong to suborbiculate or obovate, (27–) 38–59 (–78) × (19–) 26–43 (–55) mm, base rounded to subcordate, each margin with (0–) 4–11 (–16) teeth on proximal 1/2 and (0–) 3–6 (–8) teeth in distalmost cm, largest teeth more than 1 mm, apex rounded and mucronate to subacute, abaxial surface densely (sparsely) hairy by flowering, surfaces sparsely (moderately) hairy (or glabrous) later. Inflorescences (4–) 7–10 (–13) -flowered, (20–) 30–51 (–68) mm. Pedicels: 0–2 subtended by a leaf, proximalmost (8–) 11–23 (–36) mm. Flowers: sepals recurved or spreading after flowering, (1.8–) 2.5–4.1 (–6) mm; petals linear to narrowly spatulate, (8–) 10.7–16.1 (–20) × (2–) 3.5–5.6 (–7) mm; stamens (16–) 19–21 (–24); styles (4 or) 5, (1.6–) 2.5–3.4 (–4.6) mm; ovary apex densely (moderately) hairy. Pomes dark purple or almost black, 10 mm diam. 2n = 2x, 3x, 4x.


Phenology: Flowering May–Jun; fruiting Jul–Aug.
Habitat: Margins of woods, river ledges, shorelines, rocky slopes, crevices of open rock faces and cliffs, noncalcareous to slightly calcareous sites
Elevation: 0–1000 m

Distribution

V9 1122-distribution-map.jpg

N.B., Ont., Que., Sask., Ala., Conn., Ga., Ill., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

This treatment follows G. N. Jones’s (1946) and E. G. Voss’s (1972–1996, vol. 2) with the inclusion of Amelanchier huronensis in A. sanguinea. The former was considered to differ from A. sanguinea in having longer proximalmost pedicels, sepals, and petals, but overlap occurs in the ranges of these characters. Moreover, A. sanguinea has been seen far from the range of A. huronensis (southern Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) with petals as long as the longest reported for A. huronensis. Occurrences of A. sanguinea in Kentucky and North Dakota are questionable, as no specimens were actually seen to confirm the presence of this species from these states.

Amelanchier sanguinea has shorter petals than A. amabilis. Amelanchier humilis differs from A. amabilis and A. sanguinea in having shorter proximalmost pedicels, erect inflorescences, and shorter petals. Amelanchier amabilis, A. sanguinea, and, to a lesser extent, A. humilis resemble western North American congeners.

Amelanchier sanguinea flowers 10 to 14 days after A. arborea and A. laevis, according to K. M. Wiegand (1912), and at the same time as A. amabilis. Hybrids between A. sanguinea and A. bartramiana, A. canadensis, A. laevis, and A. spicata have been reported (M. L. Fernald 1950; P. Landry 1975). The authors have observed A. sanguinea flowering with A. amabilis but no putative hybrids were observed.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Amelanchier sanguinea"
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and hairy +
Christopher S. Campbell +, Michael B. Burgess +, Kevin R. Cushman +, Eric T. Doucette +, Alison C. Dibble +  and Christopher T. Frye +
(Pursh) de Candolle in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle +
fissuring in older trees +  and smooth +
salmon colored +, brown +  and gray +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
rounded +  and subcordate +
Pyrus sanguinea +
5.9 cm59 mm <br />0.059 m <br /> (7.8 cm78 mm <br />0.078 m <br />) +
4.3 cm43 mm <br />0.043 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
3.8 cm38 mm <br />0.038 m <br /> (5.9 cm59 mm <br />0.059 m <br />) +
elliptic-oblong +  and suborbiculate or obovate +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
26mm +  and 43mm +
adnate +  and connate +
Red-twigged shadbush +  and amélanchier sanguin +
N.B. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Conn. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
not +  and aggregated +
0–1000 m +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
purplish +  and nearly black pinkish or maroon-purple dark purple-blue or brownish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Margins of woods, river ledges, shorelines, rocky slopes, crevices of open rock faces and cliffs, noncalcareous to slightly calcareous sites +
glabrous +  and hairy +
(4-)7-10(-13)-flowered +
5.1 cm51 mm <br />0.051 m <br /> (6.8 cm68 mm <br />0.068 m <br />) +
nodding +, spreading +, drooping +, erect +, ascending +  and arching +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5.1 cm51 mm <br />0.051 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
pinnate +, dentate +, serrate +  and entire +
toothed +, unlobed +  and lobed +
6-10-loculed +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
0 +  and 2 +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
1.61 cm16.1 mm <br />0.0161 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
0.56 cm5.6 mm <br />0.0056 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Pink (?) +, Ivory (?) +  and White (?) +
free +  and distinct +
1.07 cm10.7 mm <br />0.0107 m <br /> (1.61 cm16.1 mm <br />0.0161 m <br />) +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.56 cm5.6 mm <br />0.0056 m <br />) +
1.81 cm18.1 mm <br />0.0181 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1.13 cm11.3 mm <br />0.0113 m <br /> (1.81 cm18.1 mm <br />0.0181 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Jun +  and fruiting Jul–Aug. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
black +  and dark purple +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br /> (3.6 cm36 mm <br />0.036 m <br />) +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. +
4-17-flowered +
not arillate +
0.41 cm4.1 mm <br />0.0041 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
spreading +  and recurved +
triangular +  and lanceolate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.41 cm4.1 mm <br />0.0041 m <br />) +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
erect +  and ascending +
1 +  and 20 +
0.34 cm3.4 mm <br />0.0034 m <br /> (0.46 cm4.6 mm <br />0.0046 m <br />) +
persistent +
connate +  and distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
elongate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.34 cm3.4 mm <br />0.0034 m <br />) +
Amelanchier huronensis +
Amelanchier sanguinea +
Amelanchier +
species +
4 +  and 11 +
inconspicuous +
tree +  and shrub +