Amelanchier spicata

(Lamarck) K. Koch

Dendrologie 1: 182. 1869.

Common names: Thicket shadbush amélanchier en épis
Endemic
Basionyms: Crataegus spicata Lamarck in J. Lamarck et al., Encycl. 1: 84. 1783
Synonyms: Amelanchier arborea var. austromontana (Ashe) H. E. Ahles A. austromontana Ashe A. lucida (Fernald) Fernald A. stolonifera Wiegand
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 656. Mentioned on page 648, 649, 654, 655, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661.

Shrubs, 0.3–1.2 (–2) m. Stems 1–100, rhizomatous and in scattered colonies. Leaves half-unfolded; petiole (9.5–) 11.5–16 (–19) mm; blade oval to orbiculate, (22–) 34–45 (–61) × (13–) 21–33 (–52) mm, base subcordate or rounded, each margin (0–) 3–9 (–14) teeth on proximal 1/2 and (3 or) 4–7 (–11) teeth in distalmost cm, largest teeth less than 1 mm, apex acute to obtuse and sometimes mucronate, abaxial surface densely (moderately) hairy by flowering, surfaces glabrous or sparsely hairy later. Inflorescences (5 or) 6–9 (–14) -flowered, (11–) 22–37 (–52) mm. Pedicels: (0 or) 1 subtended by a leaf, proximalmost 7–16 (–22) mm. Flowers: sepals recurved after flowering, (1.7–) 2–3 (–4.4) mm; petals linear-oblong, (5.5–) 6.5–9 (–11) × (2–) 2.7–4.4 (–6.5) mm; stamens (10–) 20; styles (4 or) 5, (2.2–) 3–3.8 (–4.6) mm; ovary apex densely hairy (or glabrous). Pomes purple-black, 7–12 mm diam. 2n = 3x, 4x.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jun; fruiting Jul–Aug.
Habitat: Summits and cliffs of low mountains, open woods, woodland clearings, rocky soil, crevices, shores, fields, roadsides, peaty, sandy, or gravelly and, typically, acidic soil
Elevation: 0–1200 m

Distribution

V9 1128-distribution-map.jpg

N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Conn., Ga., Ill., Iowa, Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Amelanchier spicata is strongly rhizomatous and has finely toothed leaves and a glabrous or densely hairy ovary apex. The species is similar to A. humilis in habit and vestiture of the ovary apices; it differs in leaf teeth, style length, style fusion, and fruit diameter. Amelanchier spicata prefers acidic soil; A. humilis is a calciphile. How A. spicata and A. nantucketensis differ is discussed under the latter.

Amelanchier oblongifolia var. micropetala B. L. Robinson was transferred to A. stolonifera as forma micropetala (B. L. Robinson) Rehder. The type of this name has petals that fall within the size range of those of A. nantucketensis, and the authors consider it a synonym of the latter.

P. M. Catling (2006) analyzed the morphology, including flowers, of Amelanchier lucida and concluded that it is distinct from A. spicata because of its shiny leaves and erect orientation of the sepals at flowering. Amelanchier lucida closely resembles A. spicata in overall habit, leaves, inflorescences, and fruits, and the authors have observed somewhat lustrous leaves in A. spicata. The authors, therefore, include A. lucida in A. spicata.

Informally recognized, Amelanchier "maritima" is a well-studied microspecies restricted to the Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts to mid Maine. This microspecies resembles A. spicata in habit and mature leaf characters and differs significantly with longer inflorescences, more flowers per inflorescences, and longer and wider petals.

M. L. Fernald (1950) and L. Cinq-Mars (1971) reported hybrids between Amelanchier spicata and A. arborea, A. bartramiana, A. intermedia, A. laevis, and A. sanguinea. Plants determined to be apomictic and attributed to this species by C. S. Campbell et al. (1987) were actually A. nantucketensis.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Amelanchier spicata"
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and hairy +
Christopher S. Campbell +, Michael B. Burgess +, Kevin R. Cushman +, Eric T. Doucette +, Alison C. Dibble +  and Christopher T. Frye +
(Lamarck) K. Koch +
fissuring in older trees +  and smooth +
salmon colored +, brown +  and gray +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
rounded +  and subcordate +
Crataegus spicata +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (6.1 cm61 mm <br />0.061 m <br />) +
3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
3.4 cm34 mm <br />0.034 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
oval +  and orbiculate +
membranous +  and coriaceous +
21mm +  and 33mm +
adnate +  and connate +
Thicket shadbush +  and amélanchier en épis +
N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Conn. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
not +  and aggregated +
0–1200 m +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
purplish +  and nearly black pinkish or maroon-purple dark purple-blue or brownish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Summits and cliffs of low mountains, open woods, woodland clearings, rocky soil, crevices, shores, fields, roadsides, peaty, sandy, or gravelly and, typically, acidic soil +
glabrous +  and hairy +
6-9(-14)-flowered +
3.7 cm37 mm <br />0.037 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
nodding +, spreading +, drooping +, erect +, ascending +  and arching +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (3.7 cm37 mm <br />0.037 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
deciduous +
pinnate +, dentate +, serrate +  and entire +
3 +  and 9 +
toothed +, unlobed +  and lobed +
6-10-loculed +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
0.44 cm4.4 mm <br />0.0044 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
Pink (?) +, Ivory (?) +  and White (?) +
free +  and distinct +
0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br /> (0.44 cm4.4 mm <br />0.0044 m <br />) +
1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
1.15 cm11.5 mm <br />0.0115 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Jun +  and fruiting Jul–Aug. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
purple-black +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
Dendrologie +
4-17-flowered +
not arillate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.44 cm4.4 mm <br />0.0044 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
triangular +  and lanceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
rhizomatous +
erect +  and ascending +
1 +  and 100 +
0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br /> (0.46 cm4.6 mm <br />0.0046 m <br />) +
persistent +
connate +  and distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
elongate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Amelanchier arborea var. austromontana +, A. austromontana +, A. lucida +  and A. stolonifera +
Amelanchier spicata +
Amelanchier +
species +
inconspicuous +