Ammophila arenaria

(L.) Link
Common names: European beachgrass Marramgrass
Introduced
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 777.

Culms (50) 60-120 cm. Ligules 10-35 mm, acute, bifid or lacerate; blades to 60 (90) cm long and 6 mm wide when flat, usually tightly convolute and sharply pointed. Panicles 12-35 cm long, 15-20 mm wide, stramineous. Spikelets 12-14 mm. Glumes equaling or exceeding the florets; callus hairs 2-6 mm; lemmas 8-12 mm, apices shortly bifid, midveins slightly excurrent; anthers 4-7 mm. 2n = 14, 28, 56.

Distribution

Md., Pa., Wash., B.C., N.S., Oreg., Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Calif.

Discussion

Ammophila arenaria is a European species that has become naturalized in most temperate countries. It was introduced along the Pacific coast and in the interior of western North America as a sand binder. It is also reported to occur, as an introduction, on the east coast; the report has not been verified. It is known from a single 1941 collection on a sand dune in Erie County, Pennsylvania. Ammophila arenaria flowers from the end of June to August. It forms a strong association with the fungus Psilocybe azurescens, which grows, often prolifically, along the northern Oregon coast.

North American plants belong to Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link subsp. arenaria, in which the glumes exceed the lemma and the callus hairs are about 2-3 mm long. It is native from northern and western Europe to northwestern Spain. Ammophila arenaria subsp. arundinacea H. Lindb. has glumes that equal the lemma, and callus hairs 4-6 mm long. It is native around the Mediterranean.

In Europe, Ammophila arenaria hybridizes with Calamagrostis. The hybrids, which are sterile, have also been used as sand binders but not, so far as is known, in the Flora region. They differ from A. arenaria in having a less dense panicle, slender lemma awns up to 2 mm long, and callus hairs 1/2 as long as the lemmas or longer. In the Flora region, a hybrid with C. nutkaensis was reported in the 1970s from the vicinity of Newport-Waldport in coastal Oregon, where both species occur (K.L. Chambers, pers. comm.). There is no voucher to support this report.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Ammophila arenaria"
56 +, 28 +  and 14 +
membranous +  and scarious +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Mary E. Barkworth +
(L.) Link +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
straight +
subterminal +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
not evident +
pointed +
spikelike +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
4-veined +  and 2-veined +
European beachgrass +  and Marramgrass +
not branching +
60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br /> (120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br />) +
not woody +
Md. +, Pa. +, Wash. +, B.C. +, N.S. +, Oreg. +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +  and Calif. +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
sterile +  and bisexual +
compressed +
reduced +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
acute +  and acuminate +
subequal +
exceeding the florets +  and equaling +
uncinate +
rounded +, keeled +  and linear-lanceolate +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
lacerate +, bifid +  and acute +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
glabrous +  and ciliate +
not toothed +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
2-keeled +
12cm +  and 35cm +
spikelike +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Introduced +
1 +  and 60 +
compressed +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Gramineae +
Ammophila arenaria +
Ammophila +
species +
membranous +
parallel +  and converging +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +