Anagallis arvensis

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 148. 1753 ,.

Common names: Scarlet pimpernel mouron rouge
WeedyIntroducedIllustrated
Synonyms: Anagallis arvensis var. caerulea (Linnaeus) Gouan Anagallis caerulea
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 306.

Plants annual (rarely perennial). Stems ascending or erect, 0.6–5 dm. Leaves usually opposite, sometimes whorled distally; blade ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, 5–30 × 4–10 mm. Pedicels recurved in fruit, 3–35 mm, longer than subtending leaf. Flowers: sepals 5, calyx divided nearly to base, 3.5–5 mm, ± equaling corolla, margins entire or minutely crenulate, broadly scarious, apex acute to acuminate; petals 5, corolla salmon, red, or blue, salverform (almost rotate), (2–) 3–7 (–10) mm. Capsules 4–6 mm. Seeds 12–45.2n = 40.


Phenology: Flowering spring–summer.
Habitat: Open, disturbed sites
Elevation: 0-1200 m

Distribution

V8 612-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Greenland, B.C., N.B., N.S., Ont., Que., Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Eurasia, nearly cosmopolitan, also in Mexico

Discussion

Canadian populations of Anagallis arvensis are primarily found in southern coastal regions and the lower Great Lakes. The species has been reported also from Alberta, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saskatchewan, and Minnesota; it is not established in those areas.

The flowers close on cloudy days and as evening approaches, hence the name weatherglass. P. E. Gibbs and S. Talavera (2001) found that Anagallis arvensis self-pollinates as the petals close.

This is the most variable species of Anagallis, with reddish flowers once thought to be common in more northerly latitudes and blue flowers in southern areas. There are numerous intermediate color forms. The blue form has been the source of confusion in the nomenclature of this taxon. Linnaeus described the blue form of A. arvensis as A. caerulea. Schreber used A. coerulea (note the spelling) as did Lamarck for a related taxon that is now included within A. foemina Miller. Subsequent authors submerged A. caerulea/coerulea into A. arvensis as a forma, variety, or subspecies, incorrectly crediting either Schreber or Lamarck. L. F. Ferguson (1972) distinguished A. foemina Miller (including Schreber’s A. coerulea), which consistently produces blue flowers, as a separate entity differing, in part, by petals having few to no marginal hairs, which, when present, have elongate terminal cells (in A. arvensis the petal margins have numerous gland-tipped, globose hairs), and by having flowering pedicels equaling or shorter than the subtending leaf.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Anagallis arvensis"
Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
Anita F. Cholewa +
Linnaeus +
mostly rounded +  and cuneate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
sculpted +  and entire +
ovate;elliptic or lanceolate +
4mm;10mm +
divided +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Scarlet pimpernel +  and mouron rouge +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
blue;red;blue;red;salmon +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Greenland +, B.C. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Eurasia +, nearly cosmopolitan +  and also in Mexico +
0-1200 m +
curved +  and straight +
circumscissile +
globose +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Open, disturbed sites +
nectariferous +
monomorphic +
whorled +  and opposite +
crenulate +  and entire +
tenuinucellate +  and bitegmic +
anatropous;campylotropous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
connate;proximally nearly distinct +
Flowering spring–summer. +
3-5-carpellate +
papillate;alveolate +
Weedy +, Introduced +  and Illustrated +
epipetalous +  and antipetalous +
branched +  and simple +
erect +  and ascending +
usually capitate;truncate +
rudimentary +
Anagallis arvensis var. caerulea +  and Anagallis caerulea +
Anagallis arvensis +
Anagallis +
species +
annual +  and perennial +