Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

(Linnaeus) Sprengel

Syst. Veg. 2: 287. 1825,.

Common names: Bearberry kinnikinnik bousserole raisin d’ours
Illustrated
Basionyms: Arbutus uva-ursi Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 395. 1753
Synonyms: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. adenotricha (Fernald & J. F. Macbride) Calder & Roy L. Taylor Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. adenotricha Fernald & J. F. Macbride Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. coactilis (Fernald & J. F. Macbride) Á. Löve, D. Löve & S. L. Kapoor Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. coactilis Fernald & J. F. Macbride Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. leobreweri Roof Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. longipilosa Packer & Denford Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. marinensis Roof Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. monoensis Roof Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. pacifica Hultén Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. stipitata Packer & Denford Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. stipitata (Packer & Denford) Dorn Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. suborbiculata W. Knight
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 414. Mentioned on page 372, 407, 409, 410, 415, 425.

Shrubs, prostrate, mat-forming, 0.1–0.5 m; burl sometimes present, sometimes epicormic; twigs usually sparsely short-hairy, sometimes long-hairy or short and/or long-glandular-hairy. Leaves separated proximally, overlapping distally, bifacial; petiole 2–4 mm; blade light green abaxially, dark green adaxially, shiny, usually oblanceolate to obovate, sometimes narrowly elliptic, 1–2.5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, base cuneate (not clasping), margins entire, often cupped, surfaces smooth, sparsely puberulent, glabrescent. Inflorescences racemes (simple or 1-branched); immature inflorescence pendent, (congested), axis 0.3–1 cm, 1+ mm diam., usually sparsely short-hairy, sometimes long-hairy or short-glandular-hairy; bracts not appressed, scalelike, narrowly deltate, 2–6 mm (larger than buds), apex acuminate, surfaces glabrous. Pedicels 2–4 mm, glabrous. Flowers: corolla white to pink, urceolate; ovary glabrous. Fruits globose, 6–12 mm diam., glabrous. Stones distinct. 2n = 26, 52.


Phenology: Flowering winter–early summer.
Habitat: Coastal dunes, open, acidic temperate and boreal forests, high montane on acidic, sandy, or rocky soils
Elevation: 0-3100 m

Distribution

V8 767-distribution-map.gif

Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., Wis., Wyo., Central America (Guatemala), Eurasia

Discussion

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi exhibits great variation in indument associated with the young twigs. Most of this variation has historically been separated into subspecies, except that a recent analysis of the group suggested environmentally-based variation in these characters (T. J. Rosatti 1987b). This is the most widely distributed of all Arctostaphylos species and is the only one found outside of North America. Two ploidy levels are common, and populations sometimes contain both diploids and tetraploids. More work on this widespread species will likely elucidate its variation in morphology and ploidy. Infraspecific taxa may well be recognized once these patterns are further assessed.

A form with striking deep red to purple autumnal corollas (often blooming also in spring with normal-colored corollas) occurs on Cape Cod and Nantucket Island, Massachusetts.

Most populations lack burls and are killed by fire; throughout the range in North America are occasional populations or individuals that have small, sometimes epicormic burls. This has been noted in California, parts of Canada, and New York. With more observations this distribution may become clearer.

A form with somewhat puberulent and larger leaves has been described as Arctostaphylos ×media Greene. It occurs along the northern California coast and in Oregon and Washington. It is assumed to be a hybrid between A. uva-ursi and A. columbiana. Similarly, in the Rocky Mountains in areas with both A. uva-ursi and A. patula, hybrids have been called A. coloradensis Rollins.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"entire" is not a number.

... more about "Arctostaphylos uva-ursi"
V. Thomas Parker +, Michael C. Vasey +  and Jon E. Keeley +
(Linnaeus) Sprengel +
short-glandular-hairy +, long-hairy +  and short-hairy +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
not furrowed +
gray +  and reddish +
persistent +
exfoliating +
cuneate +
Arbutus uva-ursi +
dark green +  and light green +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
usually oblanceolate;obovate +
coriaceous +
0.5cm;1.5cm +
not imbricate +  and imbricate +
hue +, light-brown +  and tan +
persistent +
deltate +  and scale-like +
Bearberry +, kinnikinnik +, bousserole +  and raisin d’ours +
white +  and pink +
rotate to crateriform campanulate cylindric globose or urceolate +
Greenland +, St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Central America (Guatemala) +  and Eurasia +
brown +, reddish-brown +  and red +
depressed-globose +  and globose +
0-3100 m +
undifferentiated +
fusiform +
stonelike +
indehiscent +
globose +
Coastal dunes, open, acidic temperate and boreal forests, high montane on acidic, sandy, or rocky soils +
multicellular +
overlapping +  and separated +
pubescence +  and color +
persistent +
parietal +, axile +  and placentation +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
reduced +
not sticky +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Flowering winter–early summer. +
4-5-carpellate +
not +  and connate +
connate +  and distinct +
globose +
persistent +
distinct +
ovate +  and deltate +
Illustrated +
prostrate +  and erect +
peltate +  and capitate +
distinct +
straight +
glabrous +, glabrescent +  and puberulent +
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. adenotricha +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. adenotricha +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. coactilis +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. coactilis +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. leobreweri +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. longipilosa +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. marinensis +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. monoensis +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. pacifica +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. stipitata +, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. stipitata +  and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. suborbiculata +
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi +
Arctostaphylos +
species +
long-glandular-hairy +, long-hairy +  and short-hairy +
achlorophyllous +  and chlorophyllous +
evergreen +, deciduous +  and perennial +
shrub +  and mat-forming +
heterotrophic +, autotrophic +  and mycotrophic +