Berberis aquifolium

Pursh

Fl. Amer. Sept., 219. 1814.

Common names: Oregon-grape
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nuttall
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Shrubs, evergreen, 0.3-3 (-4.5) m. Stems usually monomorphic, seldom with short axillary shoots. Bark of 2d-year stems gray-brown or purplish, glabrous. Bud-scales 4-8 (-14) mm, deciduous. Spines absent. Leaves 5-9-foliolate; petioles 1-6 cm. Leaflet blades thin and flexible or rather rigid; surfaces abaxially glossy, smooth, adaxially glossy, green; terminal leaflet stalked, blade 5.1-8.7 (-14.5) × 2.4-4.5 (-5.5) cm, 1.7-2.5 times as long as wide; lateral leaflet blades lanceovate to lance-elliptic, 1 (-3) -veined from base, base obtuse or truncate, rarely weakly cordate, margins plane or undulate, toothed, each with 5-21 teeth 0-2 mm tipped with spines to 0.8-2.2 × 0.2-0.3 mm, apex acute or sometimes obtuse or rounded. Inflorescences racemose, dense, 30-60-flowered, 3-9 (-11) cm; bracteoles membranous, apex rounded or obtuse, sometimes apiculate. Flowers: anther-filaments with distal pair of recurved lateral teeth. Berries blue, glaucous, oblong-ovoid, 6-10 mm, juicy, solid. 2n = 28, 56.


Phenology: Flowering winter–spring (Mar–Jun).
Habitat: Open woods and shrublands
Elevation: 0-2100 m

Distribution

V3 1169-distribution-map.gif

B.C., Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash.

Discussion

Berberis aquifolium is the state flower of Oregon. It is widely used as an ornamental and has been reported as an escape from cultivation in scattered localities across the continent (Ontario, Quebec, central California, Michigan, and Nevada).

Berberis aquifolium is resistant to infection by Puccinia graminis.

Medicinally, various root preparations of Berberis aquifolium were used by Native Americans for stomach trouble, hemorrhages, and tuberculosis; as a panacea, a tonic, a gargle, and an eye wash; and to purify blood. Leaves and roots were used in steam baths to treat yellow fever; karok was used as a poison; and the tips of stems were used to treat stomach aches (D. E. Moermann 1986).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number.

... more about "Berberis aquifolium"
Alan T. Whittemore +
purplish +  and gray-brown +
cordate;truncate;obtuse +
Mahonia +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
8.7 cm87 mm <br />0.087 m <br /> (14.5 cm145 mm <br />0.145 m <br />) +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
5.1 cm51 mm <br />0.051 m <br /> (8.7 cm87 mm <br />0.087 m <br />) +
obovate +, oblanceolate +  and elliptic +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
2.4cm;4.5cm +
scale-like +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
Oregon-grape +
B.C. +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
0-2100 m +
small +  and large +
showy +  and inconspicuous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (?) +
compound +  and simple +
spheric +  and cylindric-ovoid or ellipsoid +
Open woods and shrublands +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
axillary +  and terminal +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
5-9-foliolate +
reduced +
toothed;undulate;plane +
1-carpellate +
basal +  and superior +
club--shaped +
3-merous +  and 2-merous +
nectariferous +
distinct +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
Flowering winter–spring (Mar–Jun). +
Fl. Amer. Sept., +
not nodose +
1 +  and 10 +
distinct +
elongate +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
0.8mm;2.2mm +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
elongating +
monomorphic +
with elongate primary-stems and short axillary spur shoots +  and elongate +
palmate +  and pinnate +
persistent +
Mahonia aquifolium +
Berberis aquifolium +
Berberis +
species +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and with tomentose stems +