Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris

Common names: Spinach chard Swiss cha rd mangel-wurzel sugar beet
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Mentioned on page 265, 266, 267.

Plants biennial; roots dark red, white, or yellow, moderately to strongly swollen, fleshy. Stems erect, distally branched, 60–120 (–200) cm. Leaves: petiole 1/2–1/3 blade length; blade broadly lanceolate to cordate; basal leaf-blade 10–20 (–27) × 4.5–8 (–18) cm; cauline leaves reduced proximally, blade rhombic to narrowly lanceolate. Cymes 2–8-flowered. 2n = 18.


Phenology: Flowering spring–summer.
Habitat: Sporadic in waste areas
Elevation: 0-300 m

Distribution

V4 486-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Ala., Conn., Maine, Mass., N.H., N.Y., N.C., Pa., R.I., S.C., Vt., Va., W.Va., s Europe, ruderal in South America and e Asia

Discussion

Subspecies vulgaris is valued as a source of sugar, a domestic vegetable, and food for livestock. Beets will grow in alkaline soils and tolerate arid conditions, making them an especially valuable crop in marginal lands. Aristotle referred to the use of red greens from beets ca. 350 b.c.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
Leila M. Shultz +
Linnaeus +
slippery +
aromatic +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (27 cm270 mm <br />0.27 m <br />) +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
dark red;green +
rhombic +  and narrowly lanceolate +
persistent +  and deciduous +
reddish-brown +, black +, brown +  and green +
Spinach chard +, Swiss cha rd +, mangel-wurzel +  and sugar beet +
2-8-flowered +
spikelike +
Ala. +, Conn. +, Maine +, Mass. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, s Europe +  and ruderal in South America and e Asia +
0-300 m +
Sporadic in waste areas +
interrupted +  and 1-8-flowered +
sessile +  and petiolate +
not winged +  and winged +
lobed +  and serrate-dentate +
semi-inferior +
crassinucellate +  and bitegmic +
campylotropous +
1 +  and single +
persistent +  and deciduous +
keeled +  and rounded +
urn--shaped +
nonadherent +  and adherent +
papery +  and chartaceous +
Flowering spring–summer. +
pointing +  and ascending +
basal +, median +  and position +
bulbous +  and taprooted +
yellow +, white +  and dark red +
swollen +
verrucate +  and striate +
reniform +  and orbicular +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Introduced +  and Illustrated +
cylindric +
opposite +  and alternate +
60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br /> (120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br />) +
not fleshy +
2 +  and 3 +
sessile +  and petiolate +
reduced;small +
horizontal +  and vertical +
verrucate +
Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris +
Beta vulgaris +
subspecies +
polygamous +, dioecious +  and monoecious +