Brachypodium sylvaticum

(Huds.) P. Beauv.
Common names: Slender falsebrome
Introduced
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 190.

Plants perennial; cespitose, sometimes shortly rhizomatous. Culms 30-120 (200) cm, erect or ascending, usually unbranched, with (3) 4-6 (12) nodes, internodes smooth, pubescent adjacent to the nodes; nodes pubescent. Sheaths rounded or keeled distally, smooth, usually hairy, sometimes glabrous, hairs spreading to reflexed; ligules 1-3.5 (5-6) mm, obtuse, pubescent, erose-ciliate; blades 8-35 cm long, (4) 5-12 (15) mm wide, flat, lax, scabrous, both surfaces sparsely pilose, hairs 0.8-1.8 mm, abaxial surfaces often with a tuft of hairs near the base, adaxial surfaces not prominently veined, veins pale, sparsely pilose. Racemes (2) 4-20 cm, suberect to pendent, with (3) 4-12 rather distant spikelets; pedicels 0.5-2 mm. Spikelets 17-30 (55) mm, terete, with 6-16 (22) florets. Glumes unequal, acute, usually pubescent; lower glumes 6-9 mm, 5-7-veined; upper glumes 8-11 mm, 7-9-veined; lemmas 6-12 (13.5) mm, lanceolate, 7-veined, awned, awns 7-15 mm, straight or weakly flexuous; paleas (5) 6-10 (12) mm, narrowly oblong, 2-keeled; anthers 3-4 (5.5) mm. Caryopses 5-8.7 mm. 2n = 16, 18.

Discussion

Brachypodium sylvaticum is native to Eurasia and northern Africa, where it grows in woods and other shady places. In the Flora region, it is established in Oregon, where it is an aggressive weed that has spread to several western counties since its first discovery in Eugene, Lane County, in 1939 (False-Brome Working Group 2006). In December 2003 it was discovered in California. Many of the locations are in nature preserves of some kind, with humans being the primary dispersers; hikers are being urged to clean their shoes and clothing before and after hiking in affected locations. An additional report from Virginia has been confirmed. A report from Utah (Hull 1974) was not supported by voucher specimens; attempts to locate the species in 2004 and 2005 were unsuccessful.

Brachypodium sylvaticum has sometimes been cultivated as an ornamental, but because of its ability to become an aggressive weed, such use is discouraged in the Flora region.

Plants in the Flora region belong to Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P. Beauv. subsp. sylvaticum, which has retrorsely pubescent sheaths, green leaves, green hairy lemmas, and spikelet lengths within the lower portion of the range given. Specimens with glabrous sheaths belong to B. sylvaticum subsp. glaucovirens (St.-Yves) Murb.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Brachypodium sylvaticum"
membranous +  and scarious +
5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br /> (?) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
(5)7-9-veined +
pubescent +  and puberulent +
Acute (?) +, Obtuse (?) +, Rounded (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
Michael B. Piep +
(Huds.) P. Beauv. +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
flexuous +  and straight +
basal +  and apical +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
acute +, obtuse +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
not evident +
attenuate +, convolute +  and flat +
5mm;12mm +
spikelike +
Slender falsebrome +
ascending +  and erect +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br />) +
not woody +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
6 +  and 16 +
subterete +  and slightly laterally compressed +
subtending +
unequal +
membranous +
spreading +  and reflexed +
uncinate +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
lanceolate +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
attenuate +  and oblong +
fleshy +  and membranous +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
overlapping +
12 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
concealed +  and prominent +
4 +  and 6 +
2 +  and 1 +
hairy +  and glabrous +
well-developed +
shorter than to slightly longer than the lemmas +
2-keeled +  and oblong +
reduced +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
spikelike +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and hairy +
keeled +  and rounded +
Introduced +
4 +  and 12 +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Gramineae +
Brachypodium sylvaticum +
Brachypodium +
species +
membranous +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
plant +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +
9 +, 7 +  and 5 +