Crataegus biltmoreana

Beadle

Bot. Gaz. 28: 406. 1899.

Common names: Biltmore hawthorn
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Crataegus confusa Sargent C. intricata var. biltmoreana (Beadle) Lance C. villicarpa Sargent
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 590. Mentioned on page 577, 586, 591, 592.

Shrubs, 20–30 dm. Stems: twigs: new growth reddish, tomentose, 1-year old dark gray, 2-years old gray; thorns on twigs straight to slightly recurved, 2-years old shiny black, slender, 3–5 cm. Leaves: petiole length 40–45% blade, sometimes winged, pubescent, strongly glandular; blade narrowly to broadly ovate, 4–7 cm, base cuneate, lobes 3–5 per side, distinct, lobe apex acute, margins strongly serrate, teeth gland-tipped, veins 4 or 5 per side, apex acute, surfaces pilose (abaxial more sparsely) young, veins pilose. Inflorescences 2–7-flowered; branches tomentose; bracteoles oblong-linear, margins short-stipitate-glandular. Flowers 15–20 mm diam.; hypanthium usually densely tomentose; sepals lanceolate, 7 mm, margins deeply glandular-serrate, abaxially pilose; stamens 5–10, anthers cream; styles 3–5. Pomes yellow to orange, often with red cheek, suborbicular, 9–14 mm diam., hairy; sepals on collar, reflexed-patent, 8–9 mm; pyrenes 3–5.2n = 51.


Phenology: Flowering Apr, May; fruiting Sep–Oct.
Habitat: Understory of open woodlands, montane coves, ridge tops
Elevation: 0–300 m

Distribution

V9 1007-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., Conn., Ga., Ind., Md., Mass., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va.

Discussion

Crataegus biltmoreana is wide-ranging but somewhat scarce; it is known from Vermont to Georgia and west to Missouri and Arkansas, but is most abundant in Appalachia.

Crataegus biltmoreana is distinctive with its very hairy young twigs, leaves, and inflorescence branches, low stature, long thorns, large flowers, and yellow to orange pomes. Indumentum is the only consistent difference from C. intricata; specific rank is maintained because wide-ranging glabrous/hairy variants of one species are so unusual in North American Crataegus. Eventually, it may prove better to accept C. biltmoreana as a variety of that species. Rare forms with almost unlobed leaves, the sinuses shallow and lobes obtuse when present, may be the same.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Crataegus biltmoreana"
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
James B. Phipps +
Beadle +
orangebrown +
thin-exfoliating +  and corrugated +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +
Intricatae +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
adnate +  and distinct +
crowded +, scattered +  and alternate +
Biltmore hawthorn +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Ga. +, Ind. +, Md. +, Mass. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +  and W.Va. +
not +  and aggregated +
0–300 m +
less hard +  and mealy +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
yellow +  and red or purplish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
gray +, dark gray +  and reddish +
old +  and new +
Understory of open woodlands, montane coves, ridge tops +
constricted +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
distinct +
craspedodromous +
glandular-serrate +  and serrate +
pilose +  and short-stipitate-glandular +
glandular-serrate +  and glandular-pectinate +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and circular +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
post-mature +
stipitate +  and sessile +
Flowering Apr, May +  and fruiting Sep–Oct. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
dark gray-brown +  and russet +
exfoliating +  and corrugated +
pruinose +
yellow +  and orange +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
suborbicular +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
reflexed-patent +
lanceolate +
nonaccrescent +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
1-50-flowered +  and few-leaved +
shallow +  and more or less deep +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
persistent +
distinct +
exsert +  and lateral +
elongate +
Crataegus confusa +, C. intricata var. biltmoreana +  and C. villicarpa +
Crataegus biltmoreana +
Crataegus (sect. Coccineae) ser. Intricatae +
species +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
straight +
slender +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
gland-tipped +
inconspicuous +
buff to gray-brown +  and corrugated +
less erect +  and oblique +
1 +  and several +
straight +
determinate +
5 +  and 4 +