Crataegus collina

Chapman

Fl. S.E. U.S. ed. 2 repr. 2, 684. 1892.

Common names: Hillside hawthorn
Endemic
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 543. Mentioned on page 542, 544, 545, 563, 610, 617, 635, 637, 638, 639.

Shrubs, 60–80 dm. Stems: twigs: new growth pubescent, 1–2-years old grayish brown, older gray; thorns on twigs few to numerous, ± straight, 1-year old dark gray, usually ± slender, 2–4 cm. Leaves: petiole 1 cm, length 10–20% blade, unwinged part often short or absent, pubescent, eglandular; blade rhombic-obovate or broadly elliptic, sometimes ± narrowly obovate, ± obtrullate, or broadly rhombic-elliptic, 3–5 (–7.5) cm, 1.4–2.5 times as long as wide, base tapering into petioles, lobes 0, or 1 or 2 (or 3) per side, lobe apex acute to subacute, rarely obtuse, margins serrate in distal 3/4, veins 5–7 per side, apex subacute to obtuse, abaxial surface scabrous-pubescent, especially on veins, adaxial scabrous-pubescent young, glabrescent. Inflorescences 5–10-flowered; branches appressed-pubescent; bracteoles membranous, margins sessile or short-stipitate-glandular; flowering usually early, often before full leaf expansion. Flowers (10–) 13–18 (–20) mm diam.; hypanthium glabrous or ± sparsely pubescent; sepal margins usually glandular-serrate, abaxially glabrous; stamens (5–) 20, anthers white, cream, or rose; styles (3–) 5. Pomes orange or ruddy to deep red, orbicular, 8–14 mm diam., punctate, usually glabrous; sepals patent-reflexed; pyrenes (3–) 5.2n = 34, 51, 68.

Distribution

V9 915-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Miss., Mo., N.C., S.C., Tenn., Va.

Discussion

Varieties 5 (5 in the flora).

Crataegus collina is found from Oklahoma and Kansas to the Atlantic. It is absent from middle and higher elevations in the Appalachians, where it is replaced by C. punctata.

Crataegus collina is similar to its almost allopatric counterpart C. punctata, differing in its less tabulate growth habit, leaves on extension shoots not deeply incised, fewer-flowered inflorescences, fewer (5–7 vs. 7–10) and less impressed veins, often wider leaf shape (especially in var. hirtiflora), somewhat darker twig color, sepal margins more or less glandular-serrate, and sometimes different stamen number. Crataegus collina is one of the first hawthorns to flower in its area of distribution, unlike C. punctata, which is late mid season. Crataegus ×disperma (see Interserial Hybrids) is somewhat similar to C. collina; it is allopatric and usually has more lateral leaf veins and fewer pyrenes. Crataegus collina is apparently intolerant of drought and is often leafless by late August in dry summers.

Crataegus collina is variable and has been divided into varieties. The varieties have been worked out in Missouri but not systematically recorded elsewhere; the varietal distributions provided here may be incomplete. Three putative hybrids between C. collina or C. punctata (C. ×collicola, C. ×disperma, and C. ×incaedua) are included in the following key.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Styles and pyrenes 2 or 3; stamens 10–15; leaves: adaxial surfaces sparsely hairy or subglabrous young > 2
1 Styles and pyrenes (3–)5; stamens (5–)15–20; leaves: adaxial surfaces short-pubescent, puberulent, or pubescent young (except var. sordida and C. ×collicola) > 3
2 Inflorescence branches glabrous; anthers pink or red-purple. Crataegus ×disperma
2 Inflorescence branches puberulent; anthers cream. Crataegus ×incaedua
3 Leaf blades 2/3 to nearly full grown at anthesis, length/width = 1.3, lobes, if present, usually obtuse > 4
3 Leaf blades usually 1/3–1/2 full grown at anthesis, length/width = 1.4–2.25+, lobes, if present, usually acute > 5
4 Stamens 15–20; leaf blades 3–5 cm, lobes 0 or obscure. Crataegus collina var. hirtiflora
4 Stamens 5–15(–20); leaf blades 5–7.5 cm, lobes 1 or 2 per side. Crataegus collina var. lettermanii
5 Anthers white or cream > 6
5 Anthers rose > 7
6 Leaf blades at anthesis: length/width = 1.4–1.7; flowers 14–18 mm diam. Crataegus collina var. collina
6 Leaf blades at anthesis: length/width = 1.75–2.25; flowers 10–12 mm diam Crataegus collina var. succincta
7 Leaf blades at anthesis: length/width = 1.75–2.25. Crataegus collina var. succincta
7 Leaf blades at anthesis: length/width = 1.4–1.5 > 8
8 Leaf margins serrate distally, teeth 1.5 mm. Crataegus collina var. sordida
8 Leaf margins serrulate, teeth 0.5–0.7 mm. Crataegus ×collicola
... more about "Crataegus collina"
68 +, 51 +  and 34 +
scabrous-pubescent +
glabrescent +  and scabrous-pubescent +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
rose +, cream +  and white +
James B. Phipps +
Chapman +
orangebrown +
thin-exfoliating +  and corrugated +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
tapering +
Crataegus sect. Punctatae +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
rhombic-elliptic +, obtrullate +, obovate +, elliptic +  and rhombic-obovate +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
appressed-pubescent +
adnate +  and distinct +
crowded +, scattered +  and alternate +
Hillside hawthorn +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +  and Va. +
not +  and aggregated +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
yellow +  and red or purplish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
gray +  and grayish brown +
older +, old +  and new +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
constricted +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
short-stipitate-glandular +
serrate +  and crenate +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
eglandular +  and unwinged +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and circular +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
post-mature +
pubescent +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
dark gray-brown +  and russet +
exfoliating +  and corrugated +
pruinose +
ruddy +  and deep red +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
orbicular +
Fl. S.E. U.S. ed. +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
patent-reflexed +
triangular +
1-50-flowered +  and few-leaved +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
persistent +
distinct +
exsert +  and lateral +
elongate +
glabrous +  and tomentose +
Crataegus sect. Mexicanae +  and Crataegus ser. +
Crataegus collina +
Crataegus (sect. Coccineae) ser. Punctatae +
species +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
straight +
slender +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
craspedodromous +  and gland-tipped +
inconspicuous +
less erect +  and oblique +
1 +  and several +
determinate +
few +  and numerous +
not +  and pubescent +
5 +  and 7 +