Crataegus persimilis

Sargent

Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. 4: 94. 1903.

Common names: Plumleaf hawthorn
Endemic
Synonyms: Crataegus cerasina Sargent C. crus-galli var. prunifolia Torrey & A. Gray C. helderbergensis Sargent C. laetifica Sargent C. livoniana Sargent C. nuda Sargent C. robusta Sargent
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 641. Mentioned on page 516, 525, 526, 536, 537, 541, 635.

Shrubs or trees, 50–60 dm. Stems: twigs: new growth glabrous, 1-year old purplish brown, older dull gray; thorns on twigs straight to ± recurved, 2-years old shiny blackish purple, slender to moderately stout, 4–7 cm. Leaves deciduous; petiole length 20–30% blade, glabrous; blade ± narrowly obovate to broadly elliptic or rhombic-elliptic, 4–5 cm, coriaceous, base cuneate, lobes 0, or 3 or 4 per side, sinuses very shallow, lobe apex acute, margins sharply serrate, teeth 1–2 mm, venation craspedodromous, veins 7 per side, apex broadly acute, glossy, surfaces glabrate or glabrous, adaxial midvein hairy young. Inflorescences 8–18-flowered; branches punctate, sparsely to densely pubescent; bracteoles caducous, linear, membranous, margins glandular. Flowers 12–17 mm diam.; hypanthium glabrous or villous at base; sepals narrowly triangular, 4–5 mm, margins deeply glandular-serrate, adaxial surface glabrous; stamens 10–15 (–20), anthers cream or pink; styles (1 or) 2 (or 3). Pomes bright scarlet, glossy, suborbicular to ± ellipsoid, 10 mm diam., glabrous; flesh mealy, ± thin; sepals patent; pyrenes (1 or) 2 (or 3), dorsally grooved, sides plane to deeply excavated.


Phenology: Flowering May; fruiting Sep–Oct.
Habitat: Brush, open woods, rocky pastures
Elevation: 20–100 m

Distribution

V9 1103-distribution-map.jpg

Ont., Ky., N.Y., Ohio, Va., Wis.

Discussion

Crataegus persimilis has a large but sporadic distribution; some populations appear to be self-perpetuating. The species is widely cultivated.

Crataegus persimilis is plausibly a hybrid complex of C. crus-galli in the broad sense with C. succulenta in the broad sense. This is suggested by the glossy and subcoriaceous leaves like C. crus-galli, with larger size and broader proportions as in C. succulenta, and also dark and glossy one-year-old twigs, very dark, more or less stout one-year-old thorns, deeply incised sepal margins, and commonly pitted pyrenes (the sides usually excavated with a slit).

Included here is a substantial range of forms among which there is considerable variation in leaf shape, inflorescence indumentum, stamen number, anther color, pyrene excavation as well as other characters. The type form from near Rochester, New York, has the narrowest leaves (length/width = 1.5–2), most stamens (10–20), pink anthers, sparsely pubescent inflorescence branches, and deeply pitted pyrenes. The commonly cultivated ‘prunifolia’ form is similar but has a much broader leaf (length/width = 1.3–1.5) as well as densely pubescent or nearly tomentose inflorescence branches, and ten pink anthers. Crataegus helderbergensis resembles the last but has 10–14 white anthers and no lateral excavation to the pyrenes. Other similar taxa that are candidates for inclusion are: C. robusta, with wide leaves and nearly glabrous inflorescence branches, larger flowers (18 mm diam.), 10–20 pink anthers, plane-sided pyrenes in the type though excavated in syntype material; C. cerasina, similar, with laterally pitted pyrenes and smaller flowers (12 mm diam.). Crataegus livoniana Sargent has leaves more like C. crus-galli but barely eroded pyrenes and may not belong. Crataegus laetifica of Pennsylvania and Ohio is another similar form.

The cultivated plant is often called Crataegus prunifolia Persoon in the horticultural literature; this name is invalid because it is a later homonym of C. prunifolia (Marshall) Baumgarten, a synonym of Aronia prunifolia, the chokeberry. Crataegus persimilis, in its 'prunifolia' form is one of the more popular cultivated hawthorns. It is a handsome ornamental when well grown, with glossy foliage, striking scarlet fruit and fall color of foliage.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Crataegus persimilis"
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
pink +  and cream +
James B. Phipps +
Sargent +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +
rhombic-elliptic +  and elliptic +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
obovate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
adnate +  and distinct +
crowded +, scattered +  and alternate +
Plumleaf hawthorn +
Ont. +, Ky. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Va. +  and Wis. +
not +  and aggregated +
20–100 m +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
yellow +  and red or purplish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
gray +  and purplish brown +
older +, old +  and new +
Brush, open woods, rocky pastures +
villous +  and glabrous +
constricted +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
glandular-serrate +  and serrate +
serrate +  and crenate +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and circular +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
Flowering May +  and fruiting Sep–Oct. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
dark gray-brown +  and russet +
exfoliating +  and corrugated +
bright scarlet +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
suborbicular +  and more or less ellipsoid +
Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
triangular +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1-50-flowered +  and few-leaved +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
persistent +
distinct +
exsert +  and lateral +
elongate +
glabrous +  and glabrate +
Crataegus cerasina +, C. crus-galli var. prunifolia +, C. helderbergensis +, C. laetifica +, C. livoniana +, C. nuda +  and C. robusta +
Crataegus persimilis +
Crataegus +
species +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
blackish purple +
slender +  and moderately stout +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
craspedodromous +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
straight +
tree +  and shrub +