Crataegus succulenta

Schrader ex Link

Handbuch 2: 78. 1831.

Common names: Succulent hawthorn aubépine succulente
Endemic
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 518. Mentioned on page 516, 517, 519, 520, 523, 641.

Shrubs or trees, 40–80 dm. Stems: older trunks usually bearing compound thorns; twigs: new growth reddish green, glabrous, 1-year old dark, shiny redbrown, 2–3-years old becoming dark gray, older ± paler gray; thorns on twigs numerous, usually recurved, shiny, 1-year old dark blackish brown, stout, 3–6 (–8) cm. Leaves: petiole 1–2 cm, narrowly winged distally, glabrous, eglandular; blade rhombic-elliptic to broadly rhombic-ovate or elliptic, 4–7 cm widest near middle, subcoriaceous mature (then often blue-green), base cuneate (constricted), lobes 3–5 per side, obscure to well-marked, sinuses shallow, lobe apex usually subacute to obtuse, margins serrate except proximally, veins 6–8 per side, impressed, apex acute to subacute, rarely obtuse, abaxial surface glabrous, adaxial scabrate-pubescent young. Inflorescences 15–30-flowered; branches pubescent or glabrous; bracteoles linear, 1.7 cm, margins glandular. Flowers 12–17 mm diam.; hypanthium glabrous or pubescent; sepals narrowly triangular, 4–6 mm, margins glandular-serrate to glandular-laciniate, abaxially glabrous, adaxial pubescence not recorded; stamens 20, anthers usually red or pink, rarely white, 0.5–0.7 mm; styles 2 or 3. Pomes bright or deep red, lustrous, suborbicular, (4–) 7–10 (–14) mm diam., glabrous, rarely pubescent; flesh mealy or succulent mature; sepals spreading-reflexed; pyrenes 2 or 3, sides pitted. 2n = 51.

Distribution

V9 873-distribution-map.jpg

Man., Ont., Que., Conn., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Minn., Mo., N.C., N.H., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Va., Vt., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Varieties 5 (5 in the flora).

Crataegus succulenta ranges through the southern Great Lakes area to the middle St. Lawrence and southern New England, to Minnesota, to Iowa, Missouri (very rare), and Ohio, the Appalachians to North Carolina. An outlier has recently been recognized in Manitoba.

The dark twig colors of Crataegus succulenta are dramatic in winter and the coral red expanding bud scales are conspicuous in spring, more so than in most other species of hawthorn except C. macracantha. In summer, its commonly bluish green leaves, eglandular petioles, and impressed venation combine with thorn and twig characteristics to make this and C. macracantha usually instantly recognizable.

Crataegus succulenta often forms suckering thickets in the north.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Leaf blades proportionately narrow (1.6–2:1), elliptic to rhombic-elliptic or narrowly ovate Crataegus succulenta var. neofluvialis
1 Leaf blades proportionately wide (1.3–1.6:1), ovate to broadly rhombic-ovate or broadly elliptic > 2
2 Pomes 4–6 mm diam. Crataegus succulenta var. pisifera
2 Pomes 7–14 mm diam > 3
3 Pomes 12–14 mm diam. Crataegus succulenta var. gemmosa
3 Pomes 7–10 mm diam > 4
4 Anthers red or pink. Crataegus succulenta var. succulenta
4 Anthers white. Crataegus succulenta var. michiganensis
... more about "Crataegus succulenta"
scabrate-pubescent +
glabrescent +  and scabrous-pubescent +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
white +, pink +  and red +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
James B. Phipps +
Schrader ex Link +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +
Crataegus sect. Macracanthae +
less ovate or rhombic-elliptic +  and rhombic-elliptic +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
rhombic-elliptic +  and broadly rhombic-ovate or elliptic +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (?) +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
adnate +  and distinct +
crowded +, scattered +  and alternate +
Succulent hawthorn +  and aubépine succulente +
Man. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Conn. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, Tenn. +, Va. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
not +  and aggregated +
succulent +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
yellow +  and red or purplish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
paler gray +, dark gray +, redbrown +, dark +  and reddish green +
older +, old +  and new +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
constricted +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
craspedodromous +
obscure +  and well-marked +
6 +  and 8 +
glandular-serrate +  and glandular-laciniate +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and circular +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
post-mature +
eglandular +  and winged +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
dark gray-brown +  and russet +
exfoliating +  and corrugated +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
lustrous +  and bright +
suborbicular +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
glandular-denticulate +  and glandular-laciniate +
spreading-reflexed +
triangular +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
1-50-flowered +  and few-leaved +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
persistent +
distinct +
exsert +  and lateral +
elongate +
glabrous +  and tomentose +
Crataegus succulenta +
Crataegus (sect. Macracanthae) ser. Macracanthae +
species +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
brown +  and dark blackish +
slender +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
craspedodromous +  and gland-tipped +
inconspicuous +
less erect +  and oblique +
1 +  and several +
determinate +
6 +  and 8 +
tree +  and shrub +