Dichanthelium clandestinum

(L.) Gould
Common names: Deer-tongue grass Panic clandestin
Endemic
Synonyms: Panicum latifolium var. clandestinum Panicum clandestinum
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 25. Treatment on page 418.

Plants forming large clumps, with rhizomes 3-5 mm thick. Basal rosettes well-differentiated; sheaths pubescent; blades ovate to lanceolate. Culms 50-140 cm, stout, pilose with papillose-based hairs to subglabrous; fall phase branching from the mid and upper culm nodes, with a few, nearly erect, elongate branches, sparsely rebranching, sheaths overlapping, concealing the secondary panicles; nodes not swollen, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Cauline leaves 5-10; sheaths not overlapping, striate-ribbed, narrowing above midlength, hispid to sparsely hirsute, hairs sometimes papillose-based, summits mottled with pale spots, margins ciliate, collars puberulent; ligules 0.4-0.9 mm, membranous; blades 10-25 cm long, 15-30 mm wide, flat, lanceolate, often rigid, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, with 9-13 major veins and 40-80 minor veins, bases cordate, with papillose-based cilia, apices acuminate. Primary panicles 8-16 cm long, 4-12 mm wide, exserted, with many spikelets. Spikelets 2.4-3.6 mm long, 1.2-1.5 mm wide, narrowly ellipsoid, sparsely pubescent. Lower glumes 1/3 – 1/2 as long as the spikelets, narrowly triangular; upper glumes and lower florets slightly shorter than the spikelets, with 7 or 9 prominent veins; lower florets sterile; upper florets umbonate, apices with a minute tuft of hairs. 2n = 36.

Distribution

Conn., N.J., N.Y., Del., D.C., W.Va., Fla., N.H., Tex., La., N.S., Ont., Que., Tenn., N.C., S.C., Pa., Va., Mass., Maine, R.I., Vt., Ala., Ark., Ill., Ga., Ind., Iowa, Md., Kans., Okla., Ohio, Mo., Mich., Miss., Ky.

Discussion

Dichanthelium clandestinum usually grows in semi-open areas in damp or sandy woodlands, thickets, or on banks. It is restricted to the eastern part of the Flora region. The primary panicles are open-pollinated for a brief period, and produced from late May to early July; the secondary panicles, which are cleistogamous and usually concealed within the sheaths, are produced from July through September.

Panicum recognitum Fernald refers to rare sterile hybrids with Dichanthelium dichotomum and perhaps D. scoparium; P. aculeatum Hitchc. & Chase to putative sterile hybrids with D. scabriusculum or D. dichotomum.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number."elongated" is not a number.

anatomy +  and kranz +
Mary E. Barkworth +
(L.) Gould +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
keeled +  and rounded +
well-differentiated +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
divergent +  and parallel +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
cordate +
swelling +
disarticulating +  and pseudopetiolate +
non-radiate +  and radiate +
distinct +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
15mm;30mm +
elongate +
not developed +
terete +  and compressed +
usually distinctly longer and narrower +
papillose-based +
sometimes longer +
Deer-tongue grass +  and Panic clandestin +
decumbent +  and sprawling +
spreading +, ascending +  and erect +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (140 cm1,400 mm <br />1.4 m <br />) +
Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Del. +, D.C. +, W.Va. +, Fla. +, N.H. +, Tex. +, La. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Tenn. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Pa. +, Va. +, Mass. +, Maine +, R.I. +, Vt. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Ill. +, Ga. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Md. +, Kans. +, Okla. +, Ohio +, Mo. +, Mich. +, Miss. +  and Ky. +
capillary +
germination +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
compressed +  and terete +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
unequal +
membranous +
papillose-based +
subglabrous +
uncinate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Oval (?) +  and Round (?) +
bracteate +  and ebracteate +
solid +  and hollow +
cauline +  and basal +
coriaceous +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
1/3 +  and 1/2 +
complex +  and simple +
concealed +  and prominent +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
not swollen +
2 +  and 1 +
subterranean +
dry +  and fleshy +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (16 cm160 mm <br />0.16 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
not overlapping +  and overlapping +
hispid +  and sparsely hirsute +
narrowing +
in triplets +  and paired +
0.24 cm2.4 mm <br />0.0024 m <br /> (0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
ellipsoid +
0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br /> (0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br />) +
1.2mm +  and 1.5mm +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
fused +  and free +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
dome--shaped +  and triangular +
pubescent +  and papillose-hispid +
narrowed +
Panicum latifolium var. clandestinum +  and Panicum clandestinum +
Dichanthelium clandestinum +
Dichanthelium sect. Clandestina +
species +
membranous +
minute +
chartaceous-indurate +
7 +, 9 +  and 13 +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +
dioecious +, monoecious +  and synoecious +