Dichanthelium ensifolium

(Baldwin ex Elliott) Gould
Common names: Sword-leaf panicgrass
Synonyms: Panicum ensifolium Panicum dichotomum var. ensifolium
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 25. Treatment on page 436.

Plants cespitose, with caudices. Basal rosettes well-differentiated; blades 1.5-6 cm, ovate to lanceolate, soft, glabrous. Culms 10-40 cm tall, 0.2-0.8 (1.6) mm thick, weak, erect or reclining; nodes usually glabrous, sometimes sparsely bearded; internodes usually glabrous, occasionally sparsely pubescent; fall phase with spreading culms, sparingly branched, branching mostly from the midculm nodes, occasionally producing small fascicles of leafy branchlets. Cauline leaves 4-9; sheaths much shorter than the internodes, prominently veined, glabrous or sparsely pilose and ciliate, particularly at the top; ligules 0.2-1.8 mm, often more than 1 mm, of hairs, without adjacent pseudoligules; blades 1.5-3.5 cm long (seldom longer), 1.5-4 mm wide, all similar in size, thin, spreading or reflexed, abaxial surfaces puberulent, at least apically, or sparsely pilose, adaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, at least basally, bases abruptly and strongly constricted, occasionally ciliate, margins entire or faintly scabridulous, rarely white-cartilaginous. Primary panicles 1.5-4 cm, nearly as wide as long, long-exserted; branches wiry, mostly spreading, minutely scabridulous. Spikelets 1.2-1.5 mm, ellipsoid to obovoid, yellow-green to purplish, puberulent or glabrous, subacute or obtuse. Lower glumes seldom more than 1/4 as long as the spikelets, acute or obtuse; upper glumes usually slightly shorter than the lower lemmas and upper florets, not strongly veined; upper florets 1.1-1.4 mm long, less than 1 mm wide, ellipsoid, acute. 2n = 18.

Discussion

Dichanthelium ensifolium grows in wet to moist, sandy pinelands, savannahs, and bogs, often on Sphagnum mats, primarily on the coastal plain. It extends south into Mesoamerica, and has been reported from Venezuela. Occasional specimens grade towards the larger D. tenue, and are usually found on somewhat drier sites. It also resembles D. chamaelonche, but that species is usually more densely cespitose, has slightly smaller, glabrous spikelets, and generally occupies drier, disturbed sites.

The two subspecies are sympatric, often growing together at the same sites.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Sheaths sparsely spreading-pilose; ligules usually 1-1.8 mm long; blades sparsely pilose or glabrous on both surfaces Dichanthelium ensifolium subsp. curtifolium
1 Sheaths glabrous; ligules 0.2-1 mm long; blades usually puberulent abaxially, usually glabrous, occasionally pubescent adaxiall, Dichanthelium ensifolium subsp. ensifolium

"decumbent" is not a number."elongated" is not a number.

... more about "Dichanthelium ensifolium"
pilose +  and puberulent +
pilose +  and glabrous +
anatomy +  and kranz +
Mary E. Barkworth +
(Baldwin ex Elliott) Gould +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
keeled +  and rounded +
well-differentiated +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
divergent +  and parallel +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
constricted +
disarticulating +  and pseudopetiolate +
non-radiate +  and radiate +
distinct +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
ovate +  and lanceolate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
thin;1.5mm;4mm +
scabridulous +
spikelike +
not developed +
terete +  and compressed +
usually distinctly longer and narrower +
sometimes longer +
Sword-leaf panicgrass +
branching +  and branched +
decumbent +  and sprawling +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
spreading +, reclining +  and erect +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
geniculate +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br />) +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
Minn. +, Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Wash. +, Ala. +, Mich. +, N.C. +, Pa. +, Puerto Rico +, S.C. +, W.Va. +, Ark. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Mo. +, N.Dak. +, Nebr. +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, Del. +, D.C +, Wis. +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +, Md. +, Mass. +, Maine +, N.H. +, R.I. +, Vt. +, Fla. +, Wyo. +, Miss. +, Ariz. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, La. +, Ga. +, Tenn. +, Calif. +, Nev. +, Colo. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Va. +, Idaho +, Ohio +, Utah +, Mont. +, Oreg. +  and Ky. +
capillary +
germination +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
compressed +  and terete +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
unequal +
membranous +
uncinate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Oval (?) +  and Round (?) +
bracteate +  and ebracteate +
solid +  and hollow +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
cauline +  and basal +
coriaceous +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
obtuse +  and acute +
white-cartilaginous +
scabridulous +
complex +  and simple +
concealed +  and prominent +
bearded +  and glabrous +
2 +  and 1 +
subterranean +
dry +  and fleshy +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
pilose +  and glabrous +
in triplets +  and paired +
yellow-green +  and purplish +
glabrous +  and puberulent +
1 +  and 60 +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
obtuse +, subacute +, ellipsoid +  and obovoid +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
fused +  and free +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
dome--shaped +  and triangular +
Panicum ensifolium +  and Panicum dichotomum var. ensifolium +
Dichanthelium ensifolium +
Dichanthelium sect. Ensifolia +
species +
membranous +
0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br /> (0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br />) +
acute +  and ellipsoid +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
usually slightly shorter +
chartaceous-indurate +
plant +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +
dioecious +, monoecious +  and synoecious +