Gaultheria shallon

Pursh

Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 283, plate 12. 1813,.

Common names: Salal shallal
IllustratedEndemic
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 514. Mentioned on page 512, 515.

Shrubs, creeping, not mat-forming, rhizomatous. Stems erect to partially erect, (greenish), 50–200+ cm, ± glandular-hairy, glabrescent. Leaf-blades oval to ovate or orbiculate to reniform, 4–8+ cm, base rounded or cordate, margins serrulate (teeth fimbriate apically), apex mucronate/apiculate or aristate, surfaces glabrous. Inflorescences axillary, drooping, secund racemes; peduncle deep pink to red, 7–15+ cm, densely glandular-hairy; bracts white to light pink, deltate, 4–6 mm, not exceeding sepals, glandular-hairy marginally. Pedicels white, 7–10 mm, densely glandular-hairy; bracteoles 1–5, pinkish white, parallel-veined, oblanceolate, 3–5 mm, densely glandular-hairy. Flowers: sepals 5, distinct nearly to base, dark-pink to red, narrowly deltate, 3.5–5 mm, glandular-hairy (hairs reddish); petals 5, connate nearly their entire lengths, white to light pink, 7–8 mm, densely glandular-hairy, corolla narrowly urceolate, lobes 1 mm; filaments widest proximally, glabrous, papillose; anthers with 2 apical, bifurcating awns, dehiscent by subterminal pores proximal to awns. Fruits black-purple, 6–8 mm wide. 2n = 22, 44.


Phenology: Flowering May-early Jul; fruiting late Jul–Sep.
Habitat: Woods and transition zones, moist soils, rocky or sandy cliffs, coastal bluffs
Elevation: 0-1300 m

Distribution

V8 1005-distribution-map.gif

B.C., Alaska, Calif., Oreg., Wash., in nw Europe

Discussion

Fruits of Gaultheria shallon are a food source for animals, and the evergreen leaves provide additional food throughout the winter. This species has been used as a vegetative cover in disturbed areas because it spreads aggressively. The fresh and dried or smoked fruits were an important food of native peoples throughout its range. The evergreen leaves are used commercially in floral arrangements.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"widest" is not a number."entire" is not a number.

... more about "Gaultheria shallon"
epigynous +  and hypogynous +
Debra K. Trock +
dehiscent +
furrowed +  and smooth +
not flaky +
cordate;rounded +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
oval;ovate or orbiculate +
orbiculate;subcordate or reniform +
coriaceous +
white +  and light pink +
glandular-hairy +
deltate +
parallel-veined +
pinkish white +
glandular-hairy +
oblanceolate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Salal +  and shallal +
rotate to crateriform campanulate cylindric globose or urceolate +
B.C. +, Alaska +, Calif. +, Oreg. +, Wash. +  and in nw Europe +
0-1300 m +
undifferentiated +
fusiform +
flattened +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
5-valved +  and capsular +
indehiscent +  and loculicidal +
globose +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
Woods and transition zones, moist soils, rocky or sandy cliffs, coastal bluffs +
pseudoverticillate +  and alternate +
persistent +
aromatic +
revolute;plane;ciliate;crenate;revolute;plane;ciliate;crenate;revolute;plane;ciliate;crenate;serrate +
parietal +, axile +  and placentation +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
glandular-hairy +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
pink +  and red +
glandular-hairy +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
epigynous +  and hypogynous +
glandular-hairy +
reduced +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
not sticky +
Flowering May-early Jul +  and fruiting late Jul–Sep. +
4-5-carpellate +
Fl. Amer. Sept. +
distinct +
dark-pink +  and red +
distinct +
glandular-hairy +
deltate +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
erect +  and partially erect +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
peltate +  and capitate +
capitate +  and truncate +
straight +
brochidodromous +  and reticulodromous +
Gaultheria shallon +
Gaultheria +
species +
hairy +  and glabrous +
evergreen +, deciduous +  and perennial +
shrub +  and not mat-forming +
heterotrophic +, autotrophic +  and mycotrophic +
multicellular-hairy +
13 +, 12 +  and 11 +