Geum triflorum

Pursh

Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 736. 1813.

Common names: Prairie smoke old man’s whiskers torchflower three-sisters
Illustrated
Synonyms: Erythrocoma triflora (Pursh) Greene Sieversia triflora (Pursh) R. Brown
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 62. Mentioned on page 60.

Plants subscapose. Stems 10–45 cm, downy to pilose, hairs 0.1–3 mm, sometimes septate-glandular. Leaves: basal 4–30 cm, blade interruptedly pinnate, major leaflets 10–18, alternating with 6–16 minor ones gradually increasing in size distally, terminal leaflet slightly larger than major laterals; cauline 1–5 cm, stipules adnate to leaf, indistinguishable from leaflets/lobes, blade bractlike, not resembling basal, opposite, pinnate-pinnatifid. Inflorescences (1–) 3–5 (–7) -flowered. Pedicels densely woolly, sometimes glandular. Flowers nodding, erect in fruit; epicalyx bractlets 6–15 mm; hypanthium maroon, purple, or greenish mottled with purple, may turn pale-brown in fruit; sepals erect, 7–14 mm; petals erect, cream to yellowish suffused with pink or purple, or purple-veined, elliptic, 7–13 mm, shorter to longer than sepals, apex rounded to obtuse. Fruiting tori sessile, densely puberulent. Fruiting styles wholly persistent or distal 3–7 mm tardily deciduous, not or inconspicuously geniculate-jointed, 15–70 mm, apex not or occasionally ± hooked, pilose to apex or nearly so.

Distribution

V9 85-distribution-map.jpg

Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Ont., Sask., Yukon, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Ill., Iowa, Mich., Minn., Mont., N.Dak., N.Mex., N.Y., Nev., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Wash., Wis., Wyo., Mexico

Discussion

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

At the beginning of the twentieth century, E. L. Greene described over a dozen species belonging to the Geum triflorum complex based on differences in leaf form and indument, the relative length and shape of the epicalyx bractlets and sepals, and petal length and shape. Most of these species were quickly reduced to synonymy by other botanists. When specimens are examined from across the continent, most of the characters used to separate species in the G. triflorum complex show nearly continuous variation. It seems best to treat these variants as belonging to one species. Whether and how to classify the variation within the species will remain controversial. Some character expressions correlate reasonably well with dividing the species into two varieties, as was first proposed by N. C. Fassett (1928). Variety triflorum occurs east of the Rocky Mountains and is typical of the grasslands covering the northern Great Plains; it also is the variety found in the mountains of Arizona and New Mexico. Variety ciliatum is common throughout the rest of the Rocky Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, and Cascade Range. Intermediate specimens occur here and there, particularly in Alberta and British Columbia.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Basal leaves with larger leaflets toothed or cleft less than 1/2 their lengths; fruiting styles persistent, 28–70 mm. Geum triflorum var. triflorum
1 Basal leaves with larger leaflets cleft more than 1/2 their lengths; fruiting styles: proximal segments persistent, 15–40 mm, distal segments tardily deciduous, 3–7 mm. Geum triflorum var. ciliatum
... more about "Geum triflorum"
pilose +  and puberulent +
Joseph R. Rohrer +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
not opposite +
pinnate-pinnatifid +  and bractlike +
free +  and distinct +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Prairie smoke +, old man’s whiskers +, torchflower +  and three-sisters +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Iowa +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Wash. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Mexico +
not +  and aggregated +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (4.6 cm46 mm <br />0.046 m <br />) +
erect +  and nodding +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
tapered +, ovoid +  and fusiform +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
greenish mottled with purple +, purple +  and maroon +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
(1-)3-5(-7)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
odd-pinnate +, lyrate-pinnate +, 3-foliolate +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
winter-persistent +
cauline +  and basal +
cordate +, reniform +, orbiculate +, oblanceolate +, obovate +, oblong +, elliptic +  and rhombic +
palmate +  and pinnate +
crenate +, dentate +, laciniate +, 2-7-lobed +, flat +, lobed +, toothed +  and entire +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
purple-veined +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
shorter to longer +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
Fl. Amer. Sept. +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
deltate-lanceolate +, deltate-ovate +  and deltate +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
1 +  and 5 +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br />) +
palmate +  and pinnate +
indistinguishable +
geniculate-jointed +  and entire +
persistent +
distinct +
elongating +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
hairy +  and glabrous +
not hooked +  and hooked +
accrescent +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
Erythrocoma triflora +  and Sieversia triflora +
Geum triflorum +
species +
slightly larger +
inconspicuous +
hemispheric +  and cylindric +
enlarged +
geniculate-jointed +
deciduous +  and persistent +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +