Horkelia fusca var. parviflora

(Nuttall ex Hooker & Arnott) Wawra

Itin. Princ. S. Coburgi 1: 17. 1883.

Common names: Small-flowered horkelia
EndemicIllustrated
Basionym: Horkelia parviflora Nuttall ex Hooker & Arnott Bot. Beechey Voy., 338. 1839
Synonyms: H. fusca subsp. parviflora (Nuttall ex Hooker & Arnott) D. D. Keck Potentilla andersonii Greene P. douglasii var. parviflora (Nuttall ex Hooker & Arnott) J. T. Howell
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Mentioned on page 242, 260, 261.

Stems 1–4.5 dm. Basal leaves green, 4–15 (–18) cm; leaflets 4–8 per side, cuneate to broadly obovate, 5–15 (–20) × (2–) 5–10 (–15) mm, 1/2 as wide to wider than long, divided 1/4–1/2 to midrib into 4–6 (–10) teeth, surfaces not obscured, sparsely to moderately hirsute or villous, sometimes glabrate. Cauline leaves 1–3 (or 4); leaflets of proximalmost 2–4 (or 5) per side. Inflorescences green to purplish, congested to open, usually comprising less than 1/4 of stem, composed of 5–20-flowered glomerules, glandular-hairs not red-septate; bracts acute-lobed, not obscuring pedicels and flowers at maturity. Flowers: epicalyx bractlets 1–2 (–3) mm; hypanthium 1.5–2 × 2–3.5 mm; petals 2–4.5 (–6.5) mm; filaments 0.2–1 mm, usually longer than wide, anthers 0.3–0.5 mm; styles 0.9–1.1 mm. Achenes 1–1.2 mm. 2n = 28.


Phenology: Flowering summer.
Habitat: Dry meadow edges, in conifer woodlands, mainly on volcanic or granitic soil
Elevation: 800–3300 m

Distribution

V9 417-distribution-map.jpg

Calif., Idaho, Nev., Oreg., Wyo.

Discussion

Variety parviflora is the most widespread and polymorphic in the species and might represent the repository for variation that is not accommodated by the other, more tightly circumscribed varieties. Population clusters occur in three discrete areas: the Sierra Nevada of eastern California and adjacent Nevada, the mountains of northern California extending north in the Cascade Range to central Oregon, and the mountains of central Idaho. Each of these three areas has plants that differ slightly from those of the other two.

The most distinct phase is found in the Cascade Range of Oregon, with larger-than-average petals and highly branched inflorescences. Plants from Lost Prairie in eastern Linn County are particularly anomalous, with petals to 6.5 mm; further studies may indicate that these deserve separate recognition.

Plants from the Sierra Nevada tend to have smaller petals, and those in the higher southern Sierra Nevada tend to have capitate or subcapitate inflorescences. From about Lake Tahoe northward, inflorescences tend to be somewhat more open but still congested compared to the Oregon phase.

The Idaho phase, represented by the type of var. parviflora, has petals that run the full range from 2–4 mm, with most individuals having a slightly branched inflorescence. Unlike those of the other two phases, both the hypanthia and sepals are often purple; the hypanthium is otherwise typically greenish with only the sepals themselves a dark purple. The sole Wyoming record (D. R. Goddard 1027, F, UC) has yet to be confirmed by more recent collections in Yellowstone National Park. These plants have pale inflorescences, relatively blunt sepals, and short epicalyx bractlets, differing in these features from the closest populations in central Idaho. For reports from Montana, see species discussion.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"/2lengthoftonearlyequaltosepals" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."wide to wider than long" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

1mm +  and 1.2mm +
longer than wide +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
pink +  and rose +
Barbara Ertter +  and James L. Reveal +
(Nuttall ex Hooker & Arnott) Wawra +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
flattened +
Horkelia parviflora +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
planar +  and cylindric +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
acute-lobed +
reduced +
free +  and distinct +
Small-flowered horkelia +
open to congested +
Calif. +, Idaho +, Nev. +, Oreg. +  and Wyo. +
not +  and aggregated +
800–3300 m +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
usually longer than wide +
flattened +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
obliquely ovoid +  and reniform +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Dry meadow edges, in conifer woodlands, mainly on volcanic or granitic soil +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
congested +  and open +
green +  and purplish +
crassinucellate +
opposite +  and alternate +
marcescent +
winter-persistent +
overlapping +  and separate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
glabrate +, sparsely +  and more or less densely short-villous or hirsute +
divided +, cuneate +  and broadly obovate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +  and 1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
oblanceolate +
palmate +  and pinnate +
shallowly toothed +  and deeply divided +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
Flowering summer. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
Itin. Princ. S. Coburgi +
not arillate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
spreading +  and more or less reflexed +
lanceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
stramineous +, reddish +  and green +
ascending +  and erect +
0 +  and 1/4 +
palmate +  and pinnate +
deciduous +
distinct +
subterminal +
filiform +
rough-thickened +
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
not obscured +
glabrate +, villous +  and hirsute +
H. fusca subsp. parviflora +, Potentilla andersonii +  and P. douglasii var. parviflora +
Horkelia fusca var. parviflora +
Horkelia fusca +
variety +
4 +  and 6 +
oblanceolate +  and obovate +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +
grayish +, reddish +  and green +
hairy +  and inconspicuously conspicuously glandular +