Lyonia ferruginea

(Walter) Nuttall

Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1: 266. 1818 ,.

Common names: Staggerbush poor-grub crooked-wood
IllustratedEndemic
Basionyms: Andromeda ferruginea Walter Fl. Carol., 138. 1788
Synonyms: Xolisma ferruginea (Walter) A. Heller
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 503. Mentioned on page 372, 501.

Shrubs or trees, (ultimate branchlets spreading), to 6 (–12) m. Stems erect, slightly angled. Leaves persistent; blade elliptic to obovate or ovate, 1–9 × 0.5–4.5 cm (those of branch apices equaling or only slightly smaller than those on lower portion of branches), coriaceous, base attenuate to narrowly or widely cuneate, margins entire or undulate, usually revolute distally, sometimes strongly so, apex acute or obtuse to mucronate, less commonly rounded, abaxial surface ferrugineous-lepidote, otherwise usually densely hairy, scales often of 2 sizes, at least smaller ones persistent, midvein and secondary-veins usually at least slightly depressed, adaxial surface lepidote (scales caducous), hairy along midvein. Inflorescences fascicles, developing from buds beyond or intermixed with vegetative buds on branches of previous year; bracts 1 per flower, linear-lanceolate, 1–2 mm. Pedicels peltate-scaled, lepidote. Flowers: calyx lobes 1–2 × 0.5–1.2 mm, glabrous, lepidote; corolla white, urceolate, 2–4 × 2–4 mm; filaments 1–2.3 mm, roughened, without appendages or with 2 minute spurs. Capsules ovoid to ellipsoid, 3–6 × 3–4.5 mm, apex not constricted, lepidote, otherwise hairy; sutures separating as unit from adjacent valves; placentae subapical.


Phenology: Flowering late winter–spring.
Habitat: Pine and/or oak forests, xerophytic scrub
Elevation: 0-100 m

Discussion

Lyonia ferruginea is occasionally used as an ornamental; its stems are used in the manufacture of artificial foliage plants for use in interior design; it and L. fruticosa are most closely related to the lepidote species of Mexico and the West Indies. This species is probably reproductively isolated from L. fruticosa due to its flowering time (mainly February through May versus mainly March through July) and habitat preference (usually well versus poorly drained soils).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"entire" is not a number.

... more about "Lyonia ferruginea"
hairy +  and ferrugineous-lepidote +
hairy +  and lepidote +
epigynous +  and hypogynous +
hairy +  and lepidote +
Rounded (?) +, Obtuse (?) +  and Mucronate (?) +
not constricted +
Walter S. Judd +
(Walter) Nuttall +
furrowed +  and smooth +
not flaky +
attenuate;narrowly or widely cuneate +
Andromeda ferruginea +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
elliptic;obovate or ovate +
coriaceous +
0.5cm;4.5cm +
linear-lanceolate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
lepidote +  and glabrous +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
ovoid +  and ellipsoid +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
Staggerbush +, poor-grub +  and crooked-wood +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
rotate to crateriform campanulate cylindric globose or urceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Fla. +, Ga. +  and S.C. +
0-100 m +
undifferentiated +
fusiform +
flattened +  and geniculate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
indehiscent +  and loculicidal +
globose;ovoid or ellipsoid +
Pine and/or oak forests, xerophytic scrub +
pseudoverticillate +  and alternate +
persistent +
undulate;entire +
depressed +
persistent +
smaller +
parietal +, axile +  and placentation +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
(2-)5-8(-12)-flowered +
epigynous +  and hypogynous +
reduced +
not sticky +
Flowering late winter–spring. +
[4-]5[-8]-carpellate +
Gen. N. Amer. Pl. +
distinct +
obovoid +  and angular-obovoid or narrowly conic +
ovate-deltate +  and lanceolate +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
minute +
procumbent +  and creeping +
peltate +  and capitate +
straight +
brochidodromous +, short-stalked +  and multicellular +
unicellular-hairy +  and stipitate-glandular-hairy +
Xolisma ferruginea +
Lyonia ferruginea +
species +
glabrescent +  and hairy +
achlorophyllous +  and chlorophyllous +
evergreen +, deciduous +  and perennial +
tree +  and shrub +
heterotrophic +, autotrophic +  and mycotrophic +
multicellular-hairy +