Malus ioensis

(Alph. Wood) Britton in N. L. Britton and A. Brown

in N. L. Britton and A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. 2: 235. 1897.

Common names: Prairie or Iowa or western crabapple
EndemicIllustrated
Basionym: Pyrus coronaria var. ioensis Alph. Wood Class-book Bot. ed. s.n.(b), 333. 1861
Synonyms: Malus angustifolia var. spinosa (Rehder) C. F. Reed M. coronaria subsp. ioensis (Alph. Wood) Likhonos M. coronaria var. ioensis (Alph. Wood) C. K. Schneider M. ioensis var. bushii Rehder M. ioensis var. creniserrata Rehder M. ioensis var. palmeri Rehder M. ioensis var. spinosa Rehder M. ioensis var. texana Rehder P. ioensis
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 474.

Trees, sometimes shrubs, (20–) 40–60 (–100) dm. Stems 6–45 cm diam.; bark dark reddish-brown to gray, with narrow reddish-brown scales, sometimes glaucous when young; young branches reddish gray, tomentose, becoming reddish-brown or dark-brown and glabrous or slightly puberulous; flowering shoots becoming spurs or spiny thorns, 10–60 mm. Buds reddish-brown, ovoid, 3–4 mm, scale margins tomentose. Leaves conduplicate in bud; heteromorphic; stipules deciduous, narrowly lanceolate, 3–8 mm, apex acute; vigorous shoot leaves: petiole 15–30 mm, tomentose; blade ovate, sometimes triangular-ovate or oval, 3–9 (–12) × 1.5–4 (–6) cm, base cuneate to rounded, margins usually lobed, serrate or crenate-serrate, sometimes doubly serrate, apex acute, broadly acute, or rounded, abaxial surface tomentose (villous only on veins), adaxial glabrous or slightly villous; flowering shoot leaves: petiole 5–20 (–25) mm, tomentose, sometimes puberulent; blade elliptic, oval, or ovate, 2–5 × 1–2 cm, base cuneate or rounded, sometimes truncate-rounded, margins lobed or unlobed, serrate, doubly serrate, or crenate-serrate, apex acute, broadly acute, or rounded, abaxial surface usually tomentose, adaxial glabrous. Panicles corymblike; peduncles absent; bracteoles sometimes persistent, filiform, 3–10 mm. Pedicels 15–30 mm, tomentose, sometimes puberulent or sparsely strigose. Flowers fragrant, 35–50 mm diam.; hypanthium tomentose; sepals triangular, 3–7 mm, equal to tube, apex acuminate, surfaces hoary-tomentose; petals pink, sometimes fading white, oblong to narrowly obovate, (11–) 14–20 (–22) mm, claws (2–) 3–4 mm, margins entire, sinuate, or fimbriate, apex rounded; stamens 20, 8–16 mm, anthers rose before dehiscence; styles 5, connate basally, 9–15 mm, ± equal to stamens, tomentose in proximal 1/3. Pomes green, sometimes yellow, depressed-globose, sometimes globose, 20–30 mm diam., greasy, waxy, cores not enclosed at apex; sepals persistent, erect; sclereids abundant surrounding core. Seeds dark-brown. 2n = 34, 51, 64.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–May; fruiting Sep–Oct.
Habitat: Woods, thickets, barrens, hillsides, stream and lake banks, flood plains, roadsides, open fields, fence lines
Elevation: 100–300 m

Distribution

V9 799-distribution-map.jpg

Ark., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., Ohio, Okla., S.Dak., Tex., Wis.

Discussion

The fruit of Malus ioensis is extremely acrid in taste, and it has a high pectin content that allows it to be made into a clear yellow jelly. The beautiful, fragrant flowers provide a pleasant show in spring. Double-flowered forms have been selected for cultivation: Bechtel’s crab and forma fimbriata A. D. Slavin. This species flowers later than the cultivated apple in most regions; artificial hybrids have been documented. Malus ×soulardii (L. H. Bailey) Britton (Pyrus ×soulardii L. H. Bailey) is a hybrid between M. ioensis and M. pumila.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Malus ioensis"
64 +, 51 +  and 34 +
glabrous +  and villous +
Elizabeth E. Dickson +
(Alph. Wood) Britton in N. L. Britton and A. Brown +
dark reddish-brown +  and gray +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
truncate-rounded +, rounded +  and cuneate +
Pyrus coronaria var. ioensis +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
ovate +, oval +, elliptic +  and triangular-ovate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
1cm +  and 2cm +
linear-lanceolate +  and ovate +
membranous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
dark-brown +, reddish-brown +  and reddish gray +
puberulous +, glabrous +  and tomentose +
reddish-brown +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
adnate +  and connate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Prairie or Iowa or western crabapple +
Ark. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +  and Wis. +
not +  and aggregated +
100–300 m +
homogeneous +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
fragrant +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
red +, yellow +  and green +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Woods, thickets, barrens, hillsides, stream and lake banks, flood plains, roadsides, open fields, fence lines +
tomentose +  and not glabrous +
crassinucellate +
heteromorphic +
deciduous +
crenate-serrate +  and serrate +
fimbriate +, sinuate +, entire +, unlobed +  and lobed +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
tomentose +  and glabrous +
corymblike +
strigose +, puberulent +  and tomentose +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
puberulent +  and tomentose +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–May +  and fruiting Sep–Oct. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
yellow +  and green +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
globose +  and depressed-globose +
ceraceous +
in N. L. Britton and A. Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. +
reddish-brown +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
triangular +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
unequal +
8mm +  and 16mm +
branched +  and simple +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
membranous +
deciduous +  and persistent +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
elongate +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
hoary-tomentose +
Malus angustifolia var. spinosa +, M. coronaria subsp. ioensis +, M. coronaria var. ioensis +, M. ioensis var. bushii +, M. ioensis var. creniserrata +, M. ioensis var. palmeri +, M. ioensis var. spinosa +, M. ioensis var. texana +  and P. ioensis +
Malus ioensis +
species +
tomentose +, puberulent +, villous +, glabrescent +  and glabrous +
inconspicuous +
shrub +  and tree +