Malus prunifolia

(Willdenow) Borkhausen

Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. 2: 1278. 1803.

Common names: Plumleaf or pearleaf crabapple Chinese apple
Introduced
Basionym: Pyrus prunifolia Willdenow Phytographia, 8. 1794
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 477. Mentioned on page 473, 476.

Trees, 30–80 (–100) dm. Stems 5–20 cm diam.; bark purplish brown or gray-brown, peeling irregularly; young branches purplish brown and densely puberulous, becoming grayish purple or grayish brown and glabrous at maturity; flowering shoots producing spurs, (5–) 10–20 (–35) mm. Buds purplish brown, ovoid, 5–7 mm, scale margins sparsely pubescent. Leaves convolute in bud; isomorphic; stipules deciduous, lanceolate, 4–5 mm, apex acuminate; petiole 10–50 mm, tomentose; blade elliptic or ovate, (3.5–) 5–9.5 (–11) × (2–) 4–5 (–8) cm, base broadly cuneate, margins unlobed, acutely serrate or serrulate, sometimes doubly serrate, apex acuminate or acute, sometimes cuspidate, abaxial surface glabrous, adaxial puberulent or subglabrous. Panicles umbellike; peduncles 0–2 mm; bracteoles deciduous, rare, ± middle of pedicel, filiform, 3–4 mm. Pedicels 20–35 mm, puberulous. Flowers (30–) 40–50 mm diam.; hypanthium puberulent; sepals triangular-lanceolate or lanceolate, 7–9 mm, longer than tube, apex acuminate, surfaces puberulent; petals white, obovate or elliptic, 25–30 mm, claws 1–2 mm, margins entire, apex rounded; stamens ca. 20, 8–10 mm, anthers yellow before dehiscence; styles 4 or 5, basally connate 1/3 length, 9–11 mm, longer than stamens, proximally tomentose. Pomes yellow to dark red, ovoid or oblong, 20–25 (–34) mm diam., cores enclosed at apex; sepals persistent, reflexed (erect), raised, swollen at base; sclereids sparse surrounding core. Seeds dark-brown. 2n = 34, 51.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jun; fruiting Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Hillsides, flats
Elevation: 0–1300 m

Distribution

V9 804-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; N.B., N.S., Conn., D.C., Ill., Maine, Mass., Minn., N.H., N.Y., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., Wis., ne Asia

Discussion

Malus prunifolia is closely related to the cultivated apple, M. pumila, and sometimes is used as rootstock for the latter because of its extensive root system. Malus prunifolia differs from M. pumila in having more sharply serrate leaves, glabrate or glabrous abaxial surfaces of mature leaves, relatively long pedicels, and pomes with raised, swollen, fleshy-based sepals.

Malus prunifolia is cultivated worldwide and utilized as grafting rootstock, as a fruit tree, and as an ornamental. The species is potentially a genetic source of cold tolerance and disease resistance for apple-breeding programs. See discussion under 4. M. fusca for distinguishing M. prunifolia from the hybrid M. ×dawsoniana.

Malus ×scheideckeri Späth ex Zabel is considered a hybrid of M. floribunda and M. prunifolia (see discussion of the latter under 8. M. halliana). The 'Scheidecker crabapple' is cultivated as an ornamental tree for its semidouble pale pink flowers and yellow to orange globose pomes.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Malus prunifolia"
subglabrous +  and puberulent +
Elizabeth E. Dickson +
(Willdenow) Borkhausen +
gray-brown +  and purplish brown +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +
Pyrus prunifolia +
9.5 cm95 mm <br />0.095 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (9.5 cm95 mm <br />0.095 m <br />) +
ovate +  and elliptic +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
4cm +  and 5cm +
linear-lanceolate +  and ovate +
membranous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
grayish brown +, grayish purple +  and purplish brown +
glabrous +  and puberulous +
purplish brown +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
adnate +  and connate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Plumleaf or pearleaf crabapple +  and Chinese apple +
N.B. +, N.S. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Ill. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Minn. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, Wis. +  and ne Asia +
not +  and aggregated +
0–1300 m +
homogeneous +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
red +, yellow +  and green +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Hillsides, flats +
tomentose +  and not glabrous +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
entire +, serrate +  and serrulate +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
tomentose +  and glabrous +
umbel-like +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Jun +  and fruiting Aug–Oct. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
yellow +  and dark red +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
oblong +  and ovoid +
Theor. Prakt. Handb. Forstbot. +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
swollen +, lanceolate +  and triangular-lanceolate +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Introduced +
free +  and distinct +
unequal +
8mm +  and 10mm +
branched +  and simple +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
membranous +
deciduous +  and persistent +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
elongate +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
Malus prunifolia +
species +
tomentose +, puberulent +, villous +, glabrescent +  and glabrous +
inconspicuous +