Malus pumila

Miller

Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Malus no. 3. 1768.

Common names: Orchard or common or paradise crabapple pommier commun
Introduced
Basionym: Pyrus malus var. paradisiaca Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 479. 1753
Synonyms: M. sylvestris Miller P. malus Linnaeus
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 476. Mentioned on page 473, 474, 477, 483.

Trees, 20–100 (–150) dm. Stems 5–30 cm diam.; bark dark gray or gray-brown, scaly; young branches dark-brown or reddish-brown, densely tomentose, becoming glabrous; flowering shoots becoming spurs, 40–150 mm. Buds dark red or purple, ovoid, 3–4 (–5) mm, scale margins densely puberulous. Leaves convolute in bud; isomorphic; stipules deciduous, lanceolate, 3–5 mm, apex acuminate; petiole 10–35 mm, tomentose to sparsely pubescent; blade elliptic, ovate, or broadly elliptic, (2–) 5–10 × (1–) 3–6.5 cm, base broadly cuneate or rounded, margins unlobed, obtusely serrate, sometimes serrate-crenate, apex acute, abaxial surface glabrescent, adaxial densely puberulent. Panicles umbellike; peduncles absent; bracteoles deciduous, filiform, 5–7 mm. Pedicels 10–25 mm, puberulous. Flowers 30–40 mm diam.; hypanthium tomentose; sepals reflexed at flowering, triangular-lanceolate or triangular-ovate, 6–8 mm, equal to or longer than tube, apex acuminate, surfaces tomentose; petals (rose in bud) white, sometimes pink, obovate, 15–25 mm, claws 1 mm, margins entire, apex rounded; stamens 20, 9–10 mm, anthers yellow before dehiscence; styles 5, basally connate less than 1/2 length, 9–10 mm, slightly longer than stamens, basally gray-tomentose; stigmas green. Pomes green, yellow, or red, pure, striped, or blushed, globose or depressed-globose, 20–50 (–70) mm diam., skin with bloom or wax, sometimes russetted or dotted, cores enclosed at apex; sepals persistent, erect; sclereids absent. Seeds light-brown. 2n = 34 (51, 68).


Phenology: Flowering Apr–May; fruiting Jul–Oct.
Habitat: Abandoned or naturalized in thickets, forests, fields, fence edges, shores, roadsides
Elevation: 0–1600 m

Distribution

V9 803-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon, B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Alaska, Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., c Asia, also in Mexico, Central America (El Salvador), Central America (Guatemala), South America (Argentina), Europe, e Asia, Africa (South Africa), Pacific Islands (New Zealand), Pacific Islands (Tristan da Cunha), Australia

Discussion

Malus pumila is cultivated for its edible apple. Historically, the nomenclature of the orchard apple has been confusing, with many species names applied to cultivar groups. Based on extensive nomenclatural research, D. J. Mabberley et al. (2001) concluded that M. pumila is the correct binomial for the species of central Asia that is ancestral to orchard apples. Commonly used binomials, such as M. domestica Borkhausen (an illegitimate name), M. paradisiaca (Linnaeus) Medikus, and M. sylvestris, have been placed in synonymy. Quian G. Z. et al. (2010) have proposed to conserve M. domestica and reject M. pumila. Their proposal is still under consideration by the Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants.

Some trees, although originally planted, may appear naturalized when found in old, overgrown areas. Naturalized trees are derived from seeds distributed by birds and mammals and from apples discarded by people. Trees grown from seeds often produce small, bitter, and sour fruit.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Malus pumila"
68] +, [51 +  and 34 +
Elizabeth E. Dickson +
Miller +
gray-brown +  and dark gray +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
rounded +  and cuneate +
Pyrus malus var. paradisiaca +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and ovate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
3cm +  and 6.5cm +
linear-lanceolate +  and ovate +
membranous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
reddish-brown +  and dark-brown +
glabrous +  and tomentose +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
purple +  and dark red +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
adnate +  and connate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
Orchard or common or paradise crabapple +  and pommier commun +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Alaska +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, c Asia +, also in Mexico +, Central America (El Salvador) +, Central America (Guatemala) +, South America (Argentina) +, Europe +, e Asia +, Africa (South Africa) +, Pacific Islands (New Zealand) +, Pacific Islands (Tristan da Cunha) +  and Australia +
not +  and aggregated +
0–1600 m +
homogeneous +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
red +, yellow +  and green +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
Abandoned or naturalized in thickets, forests, fields, fence edges, shores, roadsides +
tomentose +  and not glabrous +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
entire +  and serrate +
serrate-crenate +  and unlobed +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
tomentose +  and glabrous +
umbel-like +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
Pink (?) +  and White (?) +
free +  and distinct +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
tomentose +  and sparsely pubescent +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–May +  and fruiting Jul–Oct. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
blushed +, striped +, red +, yellow +  and green +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
depressed-globose +  and globose +
Gard. Dict. ed. +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and reflexed +
triangular-ovate +  and triangular-lanceolate +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
Introduced +
free +  and distinct +
unequal +
9mm +  and 10mm +
branched +  and simple +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
membranous +
deciduous +  and persistent +
0 +  and 1/2 +
slightly longer +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
gray-tomentose +
elongate +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
M. sylvestris +  and P. malus +
Malus pumila +
species +
tomentose +, puberulent +, villous +, glabrescent +  and glabrous +
inconspicuous +