Mespilus

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 478. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 214. 1754.

Common names: Medlar
Introduced
Etymology: Greek mesos, half, and pilos, felt or ball, perhaps alluding to shape of medlar fruit resembling half a ball
Synonyms: Crataegus sect. Mespilus (Linnaeus) T. A. Dickinson & E. Y. Y. Lo
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 643. Mentioned on page 20, 428, 445, 469, 494.

Shrubs or trees, 40–70 dm. Stems 1–few, ± erect; bark grayish, smooth, with numerous small horizontal lenticels, older rough, dark gray-brown; short-shoots absent or present; armed or unarmed, compound thorns on trunk absent; extending twigs canescent. Leaves deciduous, cauline, simple; stipules caducous, free, ± elliptic, herbaceous, margins entire or lobed, asymmetric, ± pilose; petiole present; blade narrowly oblong or narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, rarely oblong-ovate, 5–12 cm, thin, margins flat, entire or finely serrate distally, venation camptodromous, surfaces ± pubescent. Inflorescences terminal on leafy short-shoots, these terminal on woody short-shoots or arising directly from extension shoots, 1 (or 2) -flowered, axes canescent; bracts present; bracteoles present, caducous or persistent, ± linear, 5–15 mm, membranous to coriaceous, abaxially ± hairy, eglandular. Pedicels present, short. Flowers: perianth and androecium epigynous, 25–35 mm diam.; hypanthium ± obconic, constricted apically, size not recorded, externally canescent; sepals 5, spreading, triangular; petals 5, white, usually suborbiculate, base barely clawed, apex ± notched; stamens 25–35 (–40), shorter than petals; carpels 5, connate, adnate to hypanthium, styles 5, subterminal, distinct; ovules 2, superposed. Fruits pomes, brownish, turbinate to subspheric, 15–40 mm diam. (larger in some cultivars), rough, punctate, glabrous or pubescent; hypanthium persistent; sepals persistent, erect to ± connivent, bases not touching; carpels woody; styles ± persistent, emerging through disc. Pyrenes 5, sides plane, covered by disc. x = 17.

Distribution

Introduced; Wash., Eurasia

Discussion

Species 1.

The Eurasian Mespilus germanica is a minor fruit, occasionally cultivated and naturalized in North America. Mespilus is retained here in the traditional concept of M. germanica, because it is distinct on a variety of characteristics and has a sister position to Crataegus (C. S. Campbell et al. 2007; E. Y. Y. Lo et al. 2007; D. Potter et al. 2007; Li Q. Y. et al. 2012; Lo and M. J. Donoghue 2012). Reproductive woody short shoots with close internodes, normal in Crataegus, occur frequently, though not universally; in the latter case, the inflorescence is borne on an annual short shoot lateral to or terminal on an extension shoot. Other notable characteristics of Mespilus that distinguish it from Crataegus include brownish fruit indicating mammal dispersal (C. M. Herrera 1989); large, hairy, eglandular bracteoles; extremely wide hypanthial opening in fruit; pyrenes covered by tissue of disc; and erect to connivent foliaceous fruiting sepals with bases distinct. Mespilus characters rarely seen in Crataegus are uniflorous inflorescences (found in C. uniflora); inflorescences borne on annual short shoots as noted above, very large flowers and stamens 25–35 (found in C. triflora).

The triploid ×Crataemespilus canescens (J. B. Phipps) J. B. Phipps (Mespilus canescens J. B. Phipps), is a plant with great horticultural potential. It is a large bush with numerous fasciculate stems; exfoliating bark; simple, nearly entire leaves; 2–6-flowered, semipendant, usually racemose, inflorescences that are commonly borne on short shoots of the season lateral to an extension shoot; flowers very like M. germanica in size and general appearance, but with fewer stamens; small bright red, hawthornlike fruit; large, abaxially hairy bracteoles with scattered very large marginal glands. A substantial colony has existed at one site in Arkansas.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

... more about "Mespilus"
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
James B. Phipps +
Linnaeus +
dark gray-brown +  and grayish +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
oblong-ovate +, narrowly elliptic +  and oblanceolate +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
persistent +  and caducous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
adnate +  and connate +
Wash. +  and Eurasia +
not +  and aggregated +
Greek mesos, half, and pilos, felt or ball, perhaps alluding to shape of medlar fruit resembling half a ball +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
canescent +  and constricted +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
camptodromous +
serrate +, entire +  and asymmetric +
lobed +  and entire +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and spreading +
triangular +
leafy +, unarmed +  and armed +
Introduced +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
1 +  and few +
persistent +
distinct +
subterminal +
elongate +
Crataegus sect. Mespilus +
Mespilus +
Rosaceae tribe Gillenieae +
inconspicuous +
tree +  and shrub +