Modiola caroliniana

(Linnaeus) G. Don

Gen. Hist. 1: 466. 1831.

Common names: Carolina bristlemallow
IllustratedIntroducedWeedy
Basionym: Malva caroliniana Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 688. 1753
Synonyms: Modiola prostrata (Cavanilles) A. St.-Hilaire M. reptans A. St.-Hilaire M. urticifolia (Kunth) G. Don
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 304.

Stems: flowering apices often ascending, branched, usually 0.2–0.5 m, often rooting at nodes. Leaves: stipules 3–4 × 1.5–3 mm; petiole length 1–2 times blade; blade 1.5–4 × 1.5–4 cm. Pedicels usually shorter than subtending petioles, hairy; involucellar bractlets lanceolate, 4–5 mm. Flowers: calyx 5–7 mm, hairy, hairs simple, 1–2 mm; corolla erect, 6–8 mm; staminal column yellowish; anthers crowded at apex; stigmas equaling number of locules. Mericarps drying black, 5–6 mm, apical spines 1.5–3 mm. Seeds 1.5 mm. 2n = 18.


Phenology: Flowering Mar–Nov.
Habitat: Disturbed, usually moist habitats, shores of ponds and reservoirs, low sandy areas, lawns, roadsides
Elevation: 0–400 m

Distribution

V6 552-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Del., Fla., Ga., Ky., La., Mass., Miss., N.C., Okla., Oreg., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., South America, also in Mexico, Central America, Pacific Islands (Hawaii)

Discussion

Modiola caroliniana is somewhat weedy but not a serious agricultural weed. It has been reported in Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania as a waif but doubtfully persists that far north. It is well established in the southeastern United States and is rather common as a lawn weed in some locations and as a garden weed in California. It probably came from southern South America in wool or cotton. Its closest relative, Modiolastrum K. Schumann, is known from southern South America.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Modiola caroliniana"
rooting +  and branched +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Steven R. Hill +
(Linnaeus) G. Don +
Malva caroliniana +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
triangular +  and orbiculate +
1.5cm;4cm +
lanceolate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
indehiscent +  and loculicidal +
Carolina bristlemallow +
brick-red +  and salmon-orange +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
indented +  and flattened +
not indurate +
Ala. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ky. +, La. +, Mass. +, Miss. +, N.C. +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, South America +, also in Mexico +, Central America +  and Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +
0–400 m +
sparse;copious +
pistillate +  and staminate +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
Disturbed, usually moist habitats, shores of ponds and reservoirs, low sandy areas, lawns, roadsides +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
axillary +  and terminal +
tough-fibrous +
connate +  and distinct +
simple +, stipulate +, sessile +, subsessile +  and petiolate +
distichous +  and alternate +
entire +  and serrate +
glabrous +  and setose +
wedge--shaped +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
16-22-carpellate +
adnate +  and distinct +
1-2 times blade +
Flowering Mar–Nov. +
rounded +
persistent +
Illustrated +, Introduced +  and Weedy +
sessile +  and subsessile +
not viscid +
filiform +, linear +  and capitate +
1-2 times number of carpels +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
16-22-branched +
Modiola prostrata +, M. reptans +  and M. urticifolia +
Modiola caroliniana +
species +
monoecious +, dioecious +  and hermaphroditic +