Myrica cerifera

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 1024. 1753.

Common names: Southern bayberry southern wax-myrtle
Illustrated
Synonyms: Cerophora lanceolata Rafinesque Cerothamnus arborescens (Castiglioni) Tidestrom Cerothamnus ceriferus (Linnaeus) Small Cerothamnus pumilus (Michaux) Small Morella cerifera (Linnaeus) Small Myrica cerifera var. angustifolia Aiton Myrica cerifera var. arborescens Castiglioni Myrica cerifera var. dubia A. Chevalier Myrica cerifera var. pumila Michaux Myrica pumila Myrica pusilla
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Shrubs or small trees, evergreen, often forming large, rhizomatous colonies of much-branched specimens, to 14 m. Branchlets reddish-brown, densely gland-dotted when young, otherwise glabrous to densely pilose, eventually glabrate; glands yellow. Leaf-blade aromatic when crushed, linear-oblanceolate to obovate, (1.1-) 2-10.5 (-13.3) × 0.4-3.3 cm, leathery, base cuneate to attenuate, margins entire or coarsely serrate beyond middle, apex acute to slightly rounded; surfaces abaxially pale yellow-green, glabrous except for pilose midrib, adaxially dark green, glabrous to pilose, both surfaces densely glandular; glands yellow to orange. Inflorescences: staminate 0.4-1.9 cm; pistillate 0.3-1.5 cm. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate on different plants. Staminate flowers: bract of flower shorter than staminal column, margins opaque, densely ciliate, abaxially densely gland-dotted; stamens mostly 3-4. Pistillate flowers: bracteoles persistent in fruit, 4, not accrescent or adnate to fruit wall, margins ciliate, abaxially densely gland-dotted; ovary glandular, especially at apex near style base. Fruits globose-ellipsoid, 2-3.5 (-4) mm; fruit wall glabrous or sparsely glandular when young, obscured by enlarged protuberances and thick coat of blue-white wax.


Phenology: Flowering mid winter–spring, fruiting summer–fall.
Habitat: Bogs, edges of marshes, ponds, creeks, and swamps, pine forests, mixed deciduous forests, pine barrens, coastal sand dunes, open fields, sandy hillsides
Elevation: 0-450 m

Distribution

V3 1131-distribution-map.gif

Ala., Ark., Del., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Miss., N.J., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tex., Va., Mexico, West Indies, Bermuda, Central America

Discussion

Myrica cerifera is an extremely variable species with respect to habitat and corresponding habit/vegetative morphology. In general, plants that occupy dry, sandy (more xeric) areas tend to be strongly rhizomatous, colonial, and smaller in stature, and to possess smaller leaves (commonly recognized as M. cerifera var. pumila). In contrast, plants of more mesic areas are seldom rhizomatous, not colonial, and often large and treelike, and they have larger leaves. These "extremes pass insensibly into each other" (J. W. Thieret 1966). I agree with Thieret's contention that these differences do not constitute reliable criteria upon which one should base taxonomic distinctions. Until it can be determined with certainty whether these differences are due to genetics or environment, the question will remain open. I have chosen the conservative route.

Myrica cerifera has often been confused with M. pensylvanica and with M. heterophylla. It is distinguished from M. pensylvanica on the basis of gland density on the leaves, the presence of glands versus hirsute pubescence on the fruit wall and protuberances (especially visible on young fruits), and less reliably on the size of the fruit (2-3.5 versus 3.5-5.5 mm). Myrica cerifera is distinguished from M. heterophylla by the density of the glands on the leaves and the glandular versus glabrous (usually) fruit wall.

Native Americans used a decoction of the leaves and stems of Myrica cerifera to treat fevers; and roots, to treat inflamed tonsils and stomachaches, and as a stimulant (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Myrica cerifera"
dorsifixed +
Allan J. Bornstein +
Linnaeus +
cuneate;attenuate +
persistent +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
accrescent +
not accrescent +
gland-dotted +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
glabrate;glabrous;densely pilose +
Southern bayberry +  and southern wax-myrtle +
planoconvex +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Md. +, Miss. +, N.J. +, N.C. +, Okla. +, S.C. +, Tex. +, Va. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Bermuda +  and Central America +
0-450 m +
connate +  and distinct +
pistillate +  and staminate +
nutlike +  and drupaceous +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
globose-ellipsoid +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
glandular +  and glabrous +
yellow +  and orange +
multicellular +  and peltate +
Bogs, edges of marshes, ponds, creeks, and swamps, pine forests, mixed deciduous forests, pine barrens, coastal sand dunes, open fields, sandy hillsides +
pistillate +  and staminate +
ellipsoid;short-cylindric or ovoid +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
10.5 cm105 mm <br />0.105 m <br /> (13.3 cm133 mm <br />0.133 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (10.5 cm105 mm <br />0.105 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
pinnatifid +
serrate +  and entire +
gland-dotted +  and opaque +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
serrate-denticulate +  and entire +
persistent +
rudimentary +
accrescent +
Flowering mid winter–spring, fruiting summer–fall. +
W1 +  and Illustrated +
shorter or longer +
epigynous +  and hypogynous +
dark green +  and pale yellow-green +
glabrous +  and pilose +
Cerophora lanceolata +, Cerothamnus arborescens +, Cerothamnus ceriferus +, Cerothamnus pumilus +, Morella cerifera +, Myrica cerifera var. angustifolia +, Myrica cerifera var. arborescens +, Myrica cerifera var. dubia +, Myrica cerifera var. pumila +, Myrica pumila +  and Myrica pusilla +
Myrica cerifera +
species +
blue-white +
tree +  and shrub +