Parthenium

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 988. 1753.

,

Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 426. 1754.

Common names: Feverfew
Etymology: Greek parthenos, virgin, or parthenion, ancient name of a plant allusion unclear
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 21. Treatment on page 20. Mentioned on page 8, 9.

Annuals, biennials, perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs [treelets], 1–120 [–400] cm. Stems ± erect, usually branched. Leaves usually cauline, sometimes in rosettes; alternate; petiolate or sessile; blades elliptic, lanceolate, linear, lyrate, oblanceolate, obovate, ovate, rounded-deltate, spatulate, sometimes (1–) 2-pinnately lobed, ultimate margins entire or toothed, faces usually hairy and glanddotted (at least the abaxial). Heads usually radiate, sometimes ± disciform (P. alpinum), usually borne in corymbiform or paniculiform arrays (in glomerules in P. argentatum, borne singly in P. alpinum and P. ligulatum). Involucres ± hemispheric [rotate], 3–8 (–12+) mm diam. Phyllaries falling, 10 (–16) in 2 series, usually distinct (partially connate in P. alpinum), outer 5 (–8) herbaceous to scarious, inner 5–8 ± scarious to membranous. Receptacles flat to conic; paleae cuneate to flabelliform, scarious or membranous, distally papillate and/or fimbrillate, all or the peripheral each ± enfolding a disc-floret. Ray (pistillate) florets 5 (–8), fertile; corollas ochroleucous, tubes stout, glandular, laminae oblong to reniform or orbiculate, or ± coroniform (none in P. alpinum). Disc-florets 12–60+, functionally staminate; corollas ochroleucous, funnelform, lobes 5 (filaments distinct, anthers connate). Cypselae (black) oblanceoloid, obovoid, or pyriform, often ± obcompressed (shed together with subtending phyllary and 2 contiguous disc-florets and their investing paleae); pappi 0 (shoulders of cypselae may bear 1–3 pappuslike, triangular to ovate, or ± subulate enations). x = 9.

Distribution

New World, mostly warm-temperate and tropical, some temperate, in Old World

Discussion

Species ca. 16 (7 in the flora).

Key

1 Plants 1–2 cm (plants cespitose or forming mats); heads borne singly > 2
1 Plants (5–)15–120 cm (plants not cespitose or forming mats); heads in glomerules, or in simple or compound, corymbiform or paniculiform arrays > 3
2 Corollas of pistillate florets bearing laminae 1–2 mm Parthenium ligulatum
2 Corollas of pistillate florets lacking laminae Parthenium alpinum
3 Shrubs > 4
3 Annuals, biennials, or perennials > 5
4 Leaf blades oval-elliptic to obovate (sometimes pinnately 3–7-lobed or round-toothed, ultimate margins entire) Parthenium incanum
4 Leaf blades lanceolate to oblanceolate (margins mostly entire, some with 1–5 sharp teeth) Parthenium argentatum
5 Perennials; leaf blades usually crenate to serrate, sometimes coarsely toothed or somewhat lobed (then mostly toward bases); pappus-like enations from shoulders of cypselae 0 or 2(–4), erect to spreading, ± subulate or threadlike Parthenium integrifolium
5 Annuals or biennials (sometimes persisting); leaf blades mostly 1–2-pinnately lobed; pappus-like enations from shoulders of cypselae 2, erect, ± deltate to ovate. > 6
6 Biennials (sometimes flowering first year or persisting); leaf blades ± pinnately lobed, abaxial faces strigillose (usually with erect hairs 1–2 mm as well) Parthenium confertum
6 Annuals (rarely persisting); leaf blades (1–)2-pinnately lobed, abaxial faces scabrellous (seldom with erect hairs 1–2 mm) Parthenium hysterophorus
... more about "Parthenium"
not tailed +, rounded +  and obtuse +
connate +  and distinct +
subequal +
scarious +
usually ovate +  and lanceolate +
usually deltate +  and lanceolate +
paniculiform +  and corymbiform +
indeterminate +  and determinate +
John L. Strother +
Linnaeus +
decurrent +
compound +  and simple +
lobed;spatulate;rounded-deltate;ovate;obovate;oblanceolate;lyrate;lanceolate +
winged;ribbed;winged;ribbed +
tuberculate +  and rugose +
barbellulate +  and barbellate +
Feverfew +
ochroleucous +
villous +, strigillose +, hispidulous +, glabrous +  and warty +
scabrellous +  and tuberculate +
obcompressed +, pyriform +, obovoid +  and oblanceoloid +
fertile +  and bisexual +
New World +, mostly warm-temperate and tropical +, some temperate +  and in Old World +
Greek parthenos, virgin, or parthenion, ancient name of a plant +  and allusion unclear +
pistillate +, staminate +  and neuter +
winged +  and beaked +
dispersed +
in corymbiform , glomerate , paniculiform , racemiform or spiciform , arrays +  and singly +
indeterminate +
homogamous +  and heterogamous +
each +  and sessile +
less scarious +  and membranous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
hemispheric +
conspicuous +
oblong +  and reniform or orbiculate or more or less coroniform +
sessile +  and petiolate +
deltate +
dentate to pinnatifid or palmatifid +  and entire +
herbaceous +  and scarious +
2-carpellate +
peripheral +
papillate +
fimbrillate;cuneate;flabelliform +
membranous +  and scarious +
persistent +
unequal +  and subequal +
Sp. Pl. +  and Gen. Pl. ed. +
1753 +  and 1754 +
bearing subulate enations +, hairy +  and bristly +
mears1975a +  and rollins1950a +
exalbuminous +
appendaged +  and truncate +
hirsutulous +  and glabrous +
papillate +
Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Ambrosieae +  and Undefined (tribe Undefined) subtribe Iveae +
Parthenium +
Asteraceae (tribe Heliantheae) subtribe Ambrosiinae +
campanulate +  and cylindric +
toothed +  and entire +
perennial +, biennial +  and annual +
shrub +  and subshrub +