Petrophytum

(Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray) Rydberg

Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 206. 1900.

Common names: Rock-spiraea
Etymology: Greek petros, rock, and phyton, plant, alluding to habitat
Basionym: Petrophytum Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray Fl. N. Amer. 1: 418. 1840
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 411. Mentioned on page 398, 412, 413, 414, 422.

Shrubs, cespitose, densely matted, 0.1–10 dm. Stems 1+, prostrate, decumbent, erect, or ascending; bark brown to dark-brown, aging to gray; short and long-shoots present; short-shoots glabrous. Leaves persistent, marcescent, cauline (tightly clustered), alternate, simple; petiole absent; blade oblanceolate to narrowly obtrullate, 0.2–2.5 (–3) cm, coriaceous, margins flat, entire, venation indistinct, masked by hairs, or palmately 1–3-veined, surfaces glabrate, strigose, canescent, pilose, or sericeous. Inflorescences terminal, 10–100-flowered, panicles narrow or widely branched, flowers aggregated, dense, compact, puberulent, canescent to sericeous; bracts present, sometimes absent; bracteoles present. Pedicels present. Flowers 2–6 mm diam.; epicalyx bractlets 0; hypanthium hemispheric, turbinate, 0.5–1 mm, canescent, pilose, or sericeous, sometimes glandular; sepals 5, erect or reflexed, ovate to lanceolate; petals 5, persistent, withering, white, oval to oblong, obovate, or oblanceolate; stamens 20–40, equal to or longer than petals; torus thickened basally, margins crenulate or entire; carpels (3–) 5 (–6) [–7], abaxially or adaxially connate or free, hirsute to pilose adaxially, styles terminal, stigmas minute; ovules 2 or 3 [or 4]. Fruits aggregated follicles, (3–) 5 (–6), lanceoloid, 1.5–2 mm, coriaceous, glabrous, glabrate, or sparsely pilose, dehiscent along abaxial and adaxial sutures; hypanthium persistent; sepals persistent, erect to reflexed; styles deciduous or persistent. Seeds 1 or 2, fusiform to terete. x = 9.

Distribution

w, sc United States, ne Mexico

Discussion

Species 3 (3 in the flora).

Taxa of Petrophytum are widely distributed in the mountains of western United States and northeastern Mexico, with P. caespitosum subsp. caespitosum the most widely distributed. The three other taxa recognized in this treatment, P. caespitosum subsp. acuminatum, P. cinerascens, and P. hendersonii, are isolated endemics with small ranges. With a single widely distributed taxon and three local endemics, it seems probable that taxa with closer geographical proximity would be likely to have greater morphological similarity. When C. Sterling (1966) examined carpel morphology in P. caespitosum, P. cinerascens, P. elatius [= P. caespitosum subsp. caespitosum], and P. hendersonii, he found that P. elatius and P. hendersonii had similar distributions of character states in five anatomical characters, yet differed as to whether carpels were fused (P. hendersonii) by their ventral bundles or distinct (P. elatius); P. caespitosum and P. cinerascens differed in only one character: carpels ventrally fused in P. caespitosum and distinct in P. cinerascens. Such incongruence of character states is seen also in leaves, flowers, and seeds; it is complicated by the reduction of these plants.

In molecular phylogenetic analyses of Rosaceae (D. Potter et al. 2007), Petrophytum was sister to Kelseya, with Spiraea basal to the pair. In a more detailed study of Spiraeeae (Potter el al. 2007b), Kelseya was sister to Petrophytum and Spiraea; however, the three topologies were not well supported and additional work may show Kelseya and Petrophytum to be sister taxa.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Pedicel bracteoles rarely extending to base of sepals; leaf abaxial surfaces glabrate, sparsely strigose, pilose to pilose-sericeous on lamina, sparsely strigose along veins, venation visible through hairs (palmately 3-veined). Petrophytum hendersonii
1 Pedicel bracteoles extending from middle to beyond apex of sepals; leaf abaxial surfaces minutely canescent to strigose, cinereous, or pilose to sericeous, venation usually not visible through hairs [3 veins may be visible through hairs (P. cinerascens) or 3+ veins may be visible in long shoot leaves (some plants of P. caespitosum)] > 2
2 Pedicel bracteoles extending from middle to apex of sepals, rarely beyond; leaf blades: apices obtuse, abaxial surfaces minutely canescent to strigose or cinereous, venation sometimes visible through hairs, palmately 3-veined; petal apices acute or rounded. Petrophytum cinerascens
2 Pedicel bracteoles usually extending well beyond apex of sepals; leaf blades: apices acute, abaxial surfaces pilose to sericeous or sparsely strigose, venation rarely visible except on long-shoot leaves, 1(–3+)-veined; petal apices obtuse to slightly cleft or acute to acuminate. Petrophytum caespitosum
... more about "Petrophytum"
Richard Lis +
(Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray) Rydberg +
gray +, brown +  and dark-brown +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
Petrophytum +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
oblanceolate +  and narrowly obtrullate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
free +  and connate +
hirsute +  and pilose +
Rock-spiraea +
w +, sc United States +  and ne Mexico +
not +  and aggregated +
Greek petros, rock, and phyton, plant, alluding to habitat +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
canescent +  and sericeous +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
pilose +, glabrate +  and glabrous +
lanceoloid +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
coriaceous +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
sericeous +, pilose +  and canescent +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
compound +  and simple +
marcescent +
persistent +
entire +  and crenulate +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and apical +
3 +  and 2 +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
Mem. New York Bot. Gard. +
not arillate +
list;count +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and reflexed +
ovate +  and lanceolate +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
ascending +, erect +  and decumbent +
persistent +  and deciduous +
distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
not elongate +
sericeous +, pilose +, canescent +, strigose +  and glabrate +
Petrophytum +
Rosaceae tribe Spiraeeae +
inconspicuous +
thickened +  and minute +
shrub +, matted +  and cespitose +