Piptatherum miliaceum

(L.) Coss.
Common names: Smilo grass
Introduced
Synonyms: Oryzopsis miliacea
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 151.

Plants loosely cespitose, not rhizomatous. Culms 40-150 cm, glabrous, often branching at the lower cauline nodes; basal branching extravaginal. Leaves not basally concentrated; sheaths glabrous, persistent; ligules of lower leaves 0.5-1.5 mm, truncate; ligules of upper leaves 1.5-4 mm, rounded to sharply acute; blades 5-30 cm long, 2-10 mm wide, flat, smooth on both surfaces. Panicles 10-40 cm, lax, lower nodes either with 3-7 branches bearing 10-40 functional spikelets, or with 15-30+ branches with no functional spikelets; primary branches spreading to ascending; lower branches 3-8 cm; secondary branches diverging from the primary branches. Glumes 2.5-3.5 mm, acuminate, 3-veined; florets 1.5-2 mm, dorsally compressed; calluses about 0.3 mm, glabrous, disarticulation scars circular; lemmas stiffly membranous, glabrous, margins fused at the base, not overlapping, light-brown at maturity; awns 3-4 mm; anthers 2-2.5 mm, penicillate; ovaries rounded, bearing two styles. Caryopses 1.5-1.7 mm long, about 0.8 mm thick; hila linear, about 1/2 as long as the caryopses. 2n = 24.

Distribution

Md., N.J., Utah, Calif., Pa., Ariz., Idaho, Nev.

Discussion

Piptatherum miliaceum is a Eurasian introduction that is now established in several parts of the world. In its native range it grows, often as a common species, primarily in disturbed areas, wadis, and oases, penetrating into the semidesert regions of northern Africa and western Asia. It is used as a fodder plant in northern Africa. Within the Flora region, P. miliaceum is known from Arizona and California, growing in disturbed sites. It has also been found on a ballast dump in Maryland.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Panicle branches loosely whorled, lower nodes with 3-7 branches, all spikelet-bearing Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum
1 Panicle branches densely whorled, lower nodes with 15-30+ branches, some with highly reduced or no spikelets Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. thomasii

"decumbent" is not a number."prolonged" is not a number.

... more about "Piptatherum miliaceum"
membranous +  and scarious +
penicillate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
awned +, bifid +, bilobed +  and entire +
not stiff +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Mary E. Barkworth +
(L.) Coss. +
twisted +  and not branched +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br /> (?) +
straight +
subterminal +  and eccentric +
2 times-geniculate scabrous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
not branching +
extravaginal +
swelling +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
not evident +
tapering +
2mm;10mm +
flexuous +  and straight +
spikelike +
well-developed +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +
Smilo grass +
perennial +  and annual +
extravaginal +  and basal +
40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br /> (150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br />) +
not woody +
Md. +, N.J. +, Utah +, Calif. +, Pa. +, Ariz. +, Idaho +  and Nev. +
0 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
compressed +
1.5mm +  and 2mm +
1-10-veined +
subtending +
acuminate +
subequal +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
membranous +
not spreading +
uncinate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
solid +  and hollow +
basally concentrated +  and evenly distributed +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
light-brown +  and black +
ovate +, rectangular +  and lanceolate +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
membranous +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +
fleshy +  and membranous +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
not overlapping +
light-brown +
concealed +  and prominent +
1 +  and 6 +
2 +  and 1 +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
well-developed +
2(3)-veined +
not keeled +
reduced +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
spreading;ascending +
not prolonged +
persistent +
smooth to scabrous +
Introduced +
1 +  and 60 +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
laterally compressed +  and terete +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Oryzopsis miliacea +
Piptatherum miliaceum +
Piptatherum +
species +
membranous +
plant +  and cespitose +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +