Pisonia aculeata

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 1026. 1753.

Common names: Devil’s-claw cockspur pull-and-hold-back old-hook garabato prieto
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 4. Treatment on page 73. Mentioned on page 72.

Vines or shrubs, to 3 m; vines subscandent, woody; branches spreading at right angles, armed with stout, recurved spines 6–20 mm. Stems velvety when young, glabrate later. Leaf-blades ovate to obovate, 2–10 × 2–7 cm, base cuneate, apex subacute, glabrate. Inflorescences: staminate inflorescences subglobose, dense, 1–3 cm diam.; pistillate inflorescences subglobose at anthesis, more open in age; branches divaricate or ascending; fruiting pedicel 0.5–2 cm. Perianths: perianth of staminate flowers yellowish green, broadly campanulate, 2–3 mm, densely and shortly viscid-villous; perianth of pistillate flowers greenish, often blushed with red, 2–3 mm, puberulent. Fruits clavate, 7–10 × 3–4 mm, densely puberulent between glandular ribs, glands extending entire length of fruits.


Phenology: Flowering throughout spring.
Habitat: Hammocks, moist thickets
Elevation: 0-100[-1000] m

Distribution

V4 151-distribution-map.gif

Fla., Tex., Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Australia

Discussion

Pisonia aculeata is nearly pantropical, found throughout the New World tropics and is considered introduced in Africa, Asia, and the Phillipines, but in the flora area it reaches only to the lower Rio Grande valley and southern Florida. It is closely allied with the less widely distributed Pisonia capitata, and there appears to be no distinction between pistillate plants of the two species. A. L. Bogle (1974) discussed the possible presence of Pisonia aculeata var. macranthocarpa in the flora.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Pisonia aculeata"
John S. Clement +  and Richard W. Spellenberg +
Linnaeus +
glutinous +
nearly +  and symmetric +
cuneate +
unequal +
woody +, leathery +  and fleshy +
undulate;plane;linear;ovate or more or less round +
thick;thin +
persistent +
connate +  and distinct +
ascending +  and spreading +
corollalike +  and petaloid +
Devil’s-claw +, cockspur +, pull-and-hold-back +, old-hook +  and garabato prieto +
Fla. +, Tex. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America +, South America +, Asia +, Africa +, Pacific Islands +  and Australia +
0-100[-1000] m +
curved +  and straight +
pistillate +  and staminate +
tubular +, urceolate +  and campanulate +
not constricted +
inconspicuous +  and showy +
1 +  and 80 +
chasmogamous +  and unisexual +
7mm;10mm +
clavate +
coriaceous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Hammocks, moist thickets +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
of unequal size +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
sinuate +  and entire +
puberulent +  and viscid-villous +
campanulate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Flowering throughout spring. +
1 +  and 5 +
angulate +  and rounded +
thick +  and thin +
fibrous;fleshy +
membranaceous +
ribbed +, 10-ribbed +  and 5-ribbed +
pubescent +, glabrous +  and warty +
wrinkled +
Illustrated +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
armed +  and unarmed +
drooping +, arched +  and erect +
penicillate +
filiform +
Pisonia aculeata +
species +
gland-tipped +
expanding +
vine +, subscandent +  and shrub +