Potentilla litoralis

Rydberg

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 264. 1896.

Common names: Coast cinquefoil potentille du littoral
Endemic
Synonyms: Potentilla pensylvanica var. litoralis (Rydberg) B. Boivin P. pensylvanica var. pectinata Lepage P. pensylvanica var. virgulata (A. Nelson) Th. Wolf P. virgulata
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 215. Mentioned on page 212, 213, 214, 216, 217.

Stems decumbent to nearly erect, (0.4–) 1–4.5 (–6) dm. Basal leaves subpinnate to subpalmate, (3–) 4–15 (–25) cm; petiole (1–) 2–8 (–15) cm, long hairs sparse to abundant, appressed to rarely ascending, ± 1 mm, ± stiff, short hairs absent or sparse, cottony or crisped hairs absent, glands ± sparse; leaflets 2–3 per side, on distal 1/6–1/3 (–1/2) of leaf axis, ± overlapping, terminal ones narrowly lanceolate to narrowly obovate, (1.5–) 2–5 (–7) × 1–2.5 cm, margins revolute, incised 3/4+ to midvein, undivided medial blade 2–10 mm wide, teeth (2–) 5–8 per side, ± linear-elliptic, surfaces usually ± dissimilar, abaxial green to grayish, long hairs ± abundant especially on veins, 0.5–1.5 mm, weak, short hairs absent or sparse, cottony hairs absent, crisped hairs absent or sparse to abundant, glands ± abundant, adaxial ± green, long hairs sparse to common, ± appressed, 0.5–1.5 mm, short hairs absent or sparse, cottony hairs absent, crisped hairs absent or sparse, glands ± abundant. Cauline leaves (1–) 2–4. Inflorescences (1–) 5–30-flowered, congested, scarcely lengthening in fruit. Pedicels 0.2–1 cm (proximal to 3 cm). Flowers: epicalyx bractlets narrowly, rarely broadly, elliptic to linear, 2.5–5 (–6) × 1 (–2) mm, lengths ± 2/3 to equal to sepals, margins ± revolute (at least in fruit); hypanthium 3–5 mm diam.; sepals 3–6 mm, apex ± acute, abaxial surfaces: venation moderate, glands abundant, evident at least distally; petals yellow, 3–5 × 2–4 mm, lengths ± equal to sepals; filaments (0.5–) 1–1.5 mm, anthers 0.3–0.5 mm; carpels 50–100, styles papillate-swollen in proximal 1/2–3/4+, 1–1.5 mm. Achenes ± 1 mm, smooth to faintly rugose. 2n = 28, 56.


Phenology: Flowering summer.
Habitat: Rocky and sandy shorelines, gravelly sites, open prairies, meadows, disturbed sites, talus, rocky outcrops
Elevation: 0–2200 m

Distribution

V9 323-distribution-map.jpg

Alta., B.C., Man., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Dak., S.Dak., Wyo.

Discussion

Revolute epicalyx bractlets and visible glands on the sepal tips are the most reliable characteristics to distinguish Potentilla litoralis from P. bipinnatifida where their ranges overlap in the northern Great Plains. The former is also more likely to be decumbent-ascending and tends to darken more in drying. Intermediates occur, as well as possible hybrids with P. bimundorum, P. hippiana, and P. pensylvanica.

Rydberg described Potentilla litoralis to accommodate the coastal phase of this species, concentrated around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and along the north Atlantic Coast as far south as New Hampshire. Potentilla pectinata Rafinesque was briefly adopted as the older name (for example, Frère Marie-Victorin 1935); it is both superfluous and a later homonym (B. Boivin 1952). The homotypic synonyms P. pensylvanica var. glabrata (Lehmann) S. Watson, P. bipinnatifida var. glabrata (Lehmann) Kohli & Packer, and P. glabrella Rydberg have been misapplied to P. litoralis; the type is a specimen of P. ovina var. ovina (sect. Multijugae) (J. Soják 1996). The type of P. dissecta Pursh, traditionally applied to P. glaucophylla (sect. Graciles), is closest to this species but has palmate leaves; ambiguity has led to the name being rejected (B. Ertter et al. 2008).

The current circumscription of Potentilla litoralis includes prairie populations extending through the northern Great Plains and boreal regions into eastern Alaska; those plants have generally been called P. virgulata when not combined with P. bipinnatifida, P. multifida in the broad sense, or P. pensylvanica. Outlying populations occur at least as far south as Wyoming (including the type of P. virgulata), central Nevada (possibly as introductions), and, possibly, Colorado.

Other than the tendency of prairie plants to be somewhat larger and more erect than the coastal plants, no significant morphologic distinctions have been found to match the differences in habitat and distribution. Based on their distribution map, B. L. Kohli and J. G. Packer (1976) considered the coastal and prairie populations, as well as what is here separated as Potentilla jepsonii, to comprise a single taxon, which they called P. bipinnatifida var. glabrata (Lehmann) Kohli & Packer (misapplied).

If Potentilla litoralis is treated as a variety of another species, var. virgulata has priority at varietal rank.

Unequivocal Potentilla litoralis barely enters Alaska; the majority of collections from central, western, and northern Alaska previously placed in P. litoralis represent an undescribed taxon whose dimensions are not included in the preceding description. Significant differences include more deeply incised leaflets with fewer teeth, flat, linear epicalyx bractlets, and larger petals. Some collections from around Kotzebue with relatively wide sepals and sparse glands may indicate hybridization with P. bimundorum.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Potentilla litoralis"
green +  and grayish +
smooth +  and faintly rugose +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
Barbara Ertter +  and Reidar Elven +
Rydberg +
subpinnate +  and subpalmate +
opposite +  and alternate +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
less cordate or reniform +  and narrowly elliptic +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
reduced +
free +  and distinct +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Coast cinquefoil +  and potentille du littoral +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.Dak. +, S.Dak. +  and Wyo. +
not +  and aggregated +
0–2200 m +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
deciduous +
on style scar +, hairy +  and glabrous +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.26 cm2.6 mm <br />0.0026 m <br />) +
crisped +
Rocky and sandy shorelines, gravelly sites, open prairies, meadows, disturbed sites, talus, rocky outcrops +
stoloniferous +  and short-rhizomatous +
straight +
weak +  and stiff +
appressed +  and rarely ascending +
sparse +  and common +
crisped +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
(1-)5-30-flowered +
crassinucellate +
bipinnate +, odd-pinnate +, subpalmate +, palmate +  and ternate +
opposite +  and alternate +
marcescent +
well-developed +
persistent +
cauline +  and basal +
reduced +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
narrowly lanceolate +  and narrowly obovate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +  and 2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (?) +
linear +  and oblanceolate +
palmate +  and pinnate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.05 cm10.5 mm <br />0.0105 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
Flowering summer. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
pinnate +  and subpinnate or subpalmate +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
often significantly longer +
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and spreading +
lanceolate +  and broadly ovate or deltate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
not rooting +
reddish +  and green +
(1-)1.5-3(-4) times basal leaves +
decumbent +  and nearly erect +
1 +  and many +
not flagelliform +
palmate +  and pinnate +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
deciduous +
distinct +
subapical +
papillate-swollen +
rough-thickened +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
Potentilla pensylvanica var. litoralis +, P. pensylvanica var. pectinata +, P. pensylvanica var. virgulata +  and P. virgulata +
not fleshy-thickened +
Potentilla litoralis +
Potentilla sect. Pensylvanicae +
species +
5 +  and 8 +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +
biennial +, annual +  and perennial +
herb +  and matted +