Pyrola asarifolia

Michaux

Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 251. 1803,.

Common names: Liver-leaf or pink wintergreen pyrole à feuilles d’asaret
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 380. Mentioned on page 379, 383.

Plants rhizomatous, (0.8–) 1.5–4.3 (–6.4) dm. Leaves: petiole (6–) 15–65 (–109) mm, channeled adaxially, glabrous; blade not maculate, dull and light green to purplish abaxially, shiny and dark green adaxially, ovate, elliptic, round, or reniform, (10–) 24–71 (–98) × (10–) 13–49 (–83) mm, coriaceous, base cordate or rounded to decurrent, margins entire or crenulate or denticulate, apex obtuse to acute. Inflorescences 1 per stem, 4–29-flowered; peduncular bracts 1–3 (–5), ovate to oblong-ovate, 7–16 × 2.5–5 mm, chartaceous or membranous, margins entire; inflorescence bracts ovate to oblong-ovate, usually as long as or longer than, sometimes shorter than subtended pedicels, 3–17 × 1–3.6 mm, chartaceous. Pedicels (3–) 4–11 mm. Flowers: calyx lobes appressed or spreading in fruit, green or pinkish with margins hyaline to white or pinkish, triangular to triangular-ovate, 1.4–5.5 (–5.8) × 1.3–2.7 mm, margins entire or erose-denticulate, apices acute to acuminate; petals white, white proximally and pinkish distally, or pink to purplish red throughout, obovate to round, 4.8–9.1 × 2.9–6 mm, margins entire; stamens 4.5–7.5 mm; filament base 0.6–1.1 mm wide; anthers (1.7–) 2–3.5 (–3.9) mm, apiculations 0.1–0.5 (–0.7) mm, thecae creamy white or tan to dark-pink, tubules pink to dark-pink, 0.1–0.4 mm, gradually narrowed from thecae, lateral walls touching for most of their lengths, pores 0.1–0.2 × 0.05–0.1 mm; ovary smooth; style exserted, 7–10 mm; stigma 0.7–1.6 mm wide, lobes erect, (without subtending ring of hairs). Capsules depressed-globose, 4–5 × 6–8 mm. 2n = 46.

Distribution

V8 717-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Calif., Colo., Idaho, Ind., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.Dak., N.H., N.Mex., N.Y., Nev., Oreg., Pa., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo., Asia

Discussion

Subspecies 3 (2 in the flora).

Regional variation in Pyrola asarifolia in North America was examined by E. Haber (1983) using morphological and flavonoid data. Despite finding some longitudinal geographic differentiation, he concluded that most earlier-recognized segregates of the P. asarifolia complex were best included within a single, polymorphic species, with the large-bracted, denticulate-leaved, Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains element (subsp. bracteata) distinguishable from the relatively short-bracted, crenate-leaved, transcontinental element (subsp. asarifolia). Included within his concept of the latter subspecies were Asian plants referred to P. incarnata (de Candolle) Freyn. A more comprehensive study of the Asian element (Haber and Hiroshi Takahashi 1988) led to the conclusion that this vicariad was sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition as P. asarifolia subsp. incarnata (de Candolle) Haber & Hir. Takahashi; it is distinguished from the North American subspecies by its narrower sepals. Takahashi (1993) found differences also in the seeds of the two subspecies.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Margins of leaf blades entire or crenulate; proximal inflorescence bracts usually as long as or longer than subtended pedicels, sometimes shorter than subtended pedicels; calyx lobe apices acute to acuminate; leaf blades round, ovate, elliptic, or reniform. Pyrola asarifolia subsp. asarifolia
1 Margins of leaf blades denticulate or, rarely, entire; proximal inflorescence bracts longer than subtended pedicels; calyx lobe apices acuminate; leaf blades ovate or elliptic. Pyrola asarifolia subsp. bracteata

"broad" is not a number.

... more about "Pyrola asarifolia"
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.39 cm3.9 mm <br />0.0039 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
Craig C. Freeman +
Michaux +
rounded;decurrent +
7.1 cm71 mm <br />0.071 m <br /> (9.8 cm98 mm <br />0.098 m <br />) +
4.9 cm49 mm <br />0.049 m <br /> (8.3 cm83 mm <br />0.083 m <br />) +
dark green +, light green +  and purplish +
2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br /> (7.1 cm71 mm <br />0.071 m <br />) +
shiny +  and dull +
reniform;round;reniform;round;elliptic;ovate +
coriaceous +
13mm;49mm +
0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br /> (0.58 cm5.8 mm <br />0.0058 m <br />) +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
spreading +  and appressed +
0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
depressed-globose +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
pseudoverticillate +, in basal rosettes +  and alternate +
Liver-leaf or pink wintergreen +  and pyrole à feuilles d’asaret +
persistent +  and deciduous +
rotate to crateriform campanulate cylindric globose or urceolate +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, N.W.T. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, N.H. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Wash. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Asia +
undifferentiated +
fusiform +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
nodding +  and spreading +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
loculicidal +
multicellular +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
ovate +  and oblong-ovate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br />) +
persistent +
scale-like +
reduced +
hyaline +  and white or pinkish +
erose-denticulate;entire;denticulate;crenulate;entire +
parietal +, axile +  and placentation +
intruded-parietal +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
ovate +  and oblong-ovate +
membranous +  and chartaceous +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
distinct +
0.48 cm4.8 mm <br />0.0048 m <br /> (0.91 cm9.1 mm <br />0.0091 m <br />) +
reduced +
not sticky +
0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
6.5 cm65 mm <br />0.065 m <br /> (10.9 cm109 mm <br />0.109 m <br />) +
channeled +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (6.5 cm65 mm <br />0.065 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.005 cm0.05 mm <br />5.0e-5 m <br /> (0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br />) +
Fl. Bor.-Amer. +
distinct +
fusiform +
peltate +  and capitate +
0.7mm;1.6mm +
straight +
expanded +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Undefined subfam. Pyroloideae +, Undefined tribe Monotropaceae +  and Undefined tribe Pyrolaceae +
Pyrola asarifolia +
species +
tan;dark-pink +
narrowed +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
evergreen +, deciduous +  and perennial +