Pyrola chlorantha

Swartz

Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Nya Handl. 31: 190, plate 5. 1810 ,.

Common names: Green-flower wintergreen pyrole à fleurs verdâtres
Synonyms: Pyrola oxypetala Austin ex A. Gray Pyrola virens Schweigger Pyrola virens var. convoluta (W. P. C. Barton) Fernald
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 381. Mentioned on page 378, 379, 382, 383, 384.

Plants rhizomatous, (0.7–) 1.4–2.2 (–2.7) dm. Leaves sometimes reduced or absent; petiole 8–60 mm, channeled adaxially, glabrous; blade not or, rarely, obscurely maculate, dull and light green to purplish abaxially, shiny and dark green, rarely with white tissue bordering larger veins adaxially, ovate, elliptic, obovate, or round, (6–) 18–28 (–33) × (5–) 10–30 mm, coriaceous, base rounded to truncate or decurrent, margins entire or crenulate to crenulate-serrulate, apex obtuse to rounded. Inflorescences 1–2 (–3) per stem, (1–) 2–8 (–17) -flowered; peduncular bracts absent or 1 (–2), subulate to linear-lanceolate, 2.8–5 × 0.5–0.8 mm, membranous, margins entire or erose-denticulate; inflorescence bracts subulate to lanceolate, usually shorter than, rarely longer than, subtended pedicels, (2.3–) 3–5 (–7.7) × 0.5–0.8 mm, membranous. Pedicels 3–8 mm. Flowers: calyx lobes appressed or spreading in fruit, green or pinkish with margins hyaline to white, deltate to deltate-ovate, (0.9–) 1.2–1.7 × (0.9–) 1.3–1.9 mm, margins entire or obscurely erose-denticulate, apices acute to obtuse; petals greenish white to yellowish white, obovate, (4–) 4.5–9 × 3.3–5.5 mm, margins entire or obscurely erose-denticulate; stamens 4–7.5 mm; filament base 0.7–1.2 mm wide; anthers (2.1–) 2.5–3 (–3.7) mm, apiculations absent or less than 0.1 mm, thecae creamy white or tan to yellowish, tubules yellowish-brown, 0.7–1.1 mm, abruptly narrowed from thecae, lateral walls not touching or connivent distally, pores 0.2–0.4 × 0.1–0.2 mm; ovary smooth; style exserted, (4–) 5–7 mm; stigma 0.9–1.5 mm wide, lobes erect. Capsules depressed-globose, 3–4.5 × 3.5–6.4 mm. 2n = 46.


Phenology: Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat: Moist to dry, coniferous and deciduous forests
Elevation: 10-3700 m

Distribution

V8 720-distribution-map.gif

St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., Idaho, Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Europe

Discussion

E. Haber (1993) interpreted some herbarium specimens with intermediate morphologies and abnormal pollen as putative hybrids between Pyrola chlorantha and P. minor, and between P. chlorantha and P. picta. Leafless forms of P. chlorantha can be distinguished reliably from those of P. picta by the size and shape of the calyx lobes.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"broad" is not a number.

... more about "Pyrola chlorantha"
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.37 cm3.7 mm <br />0.0037 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Acute (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br />) +
Craig C. Freeman +
Swartz +
rounded;truncate or decurrent +
2.8 cm28 mm <br />0.028 m <br /> (3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
dark green +, light green +  and purplish +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.8 cm28 mm <br />0.028 m <br />) +
shiny +  and dull +
round;obovate;round;obovate;elliptic;ovate +
coriaceous +
10mm;30mm +
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br />) +
spreading +  and appressed +
0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.19 cm1.9 mm <br />0.0019 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
depressed-globose +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.64 cm6.4 mm <br />0.0064 m <br />) +
pseudoverticillate +, in basal rosettes +  and alternate +
Green-flower wintergreen +  and pyrole à fleurs verdâtres +
persistent +  and deciduous +
rotate to crateriform campanulate cylindric globose or urceolate +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Europe +
10-3700 m +
undifferentiated +
fusiform +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
nodding +  and spreading +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
loculicidal +
Moist to dry, coniferous and deciduous forests +
multicellular +
(1-)2-8(-17)-flowered +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.77 cm7.7 mm <br />0.0077 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
subulate +  and lanceolate +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
persistent +
scale-like +
reduced +
hyaline +  and white +
erose-denticulate;entire;erose-denticulate;entire;erose-denticulate;entire;crenulate;crenulate-serrulate +
parietal +, axile +  and placentation +
intruded-parietal +
tenuinucellate +  and unitegmic +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.28 cm2.8 mm <br />0.0028 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
subulate +  and linear-lanceolate +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
distinct +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
reduced +
not sticky +
0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
channeled +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
Flowering Jun–Aug. +
Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Nya Handl. +
distinct +
fusiform +
peltate +  and capitate +
0.9mm;1.5mm +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
straight +
expanded +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
Pyrola oxypetala +, Pyrola virens +  and Pyrola virens var. convoluta +
Pyrola chlorantha +
species +
tan;yellowish +
narrowed +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
evergreen +, deciduous +  and perennial +