Rosa arkansana

Porter in T. C. Porter and J. M. Coulter

in T. C. Porter and J. M. Coulter, Syn. Fl. Colorado, 38. 1874.

Common names: Prairie rose
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Rosa alcea Greene R. arkansana var. suffulta (Greene) Cockerell R. conjuncta Greene R. suffulta
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 104. Mentioned on page 76, 95, 96, 101.

Shrubs, forming hedge clusters. Stems erect, slender or stout, 6–15 dm, openly branched; bark dull red to purplish red, glabrous; infrastipular prickles rarely present, internodal prickles densely mixed with aciculi to stem apices, erect, terete, 1–3 (–4) × 0.5–2 mm, base rarely extending to 3 mm, smallest often gland-tipped, aciculi rarely absent. Leaves 5–10 (–16) cm; stipules 18–24 × 4–7 mm, auricles flared, 2.5–4 (–7) mm, margins undulate, coarsely or shallowly glandular-serrate, surfaces glabrous or puberulent, eglandular; petiole and rachis sometimes with pricklets, sometimes with sparse aciculi, pubescent, sometimes glabrous, rarely stipitate-glandular; leaflets (5–) 7–9 (–11), terminal: petiolule 4–12 mm, blade obovate, sometimes elliptic, 15–40 × 8–20 mm, membranous, margins 1 (–2+) -serrate, teeth 8–16 per side, eglandular, rarely gland-tipped, apex acute, abaxial surfaces pale green, pubescent, sometimes glabrous, eglandular, adaxial green, ± glaucous, dull, sometimes pubescent (especially along midveins). Inflorescences corymbs, 1–6 (–16) -flowered. Pedicels erect, slender, 10–20 mm, glabrous, eglandular; bracts 1 or 2 (or 3), broadly lanceolate, 11–20 × 5–8 mm, margins entire, eglandular, surfaces glabrous, eglandular. Flowers 3.3–4 cm diam.; hypanthium globose, 5–6.5 × 4–5.5 mm, glabrous, eglandular, neck (0–) 0.5–1.5 × 2 mm; sepals spreading to erect, lanceolate, 11–20 (–30) × (1.5–) 3–4 mm, tip 3–7 × 0.5–1 mm, margins pinnatifid or entire, abaxial surfaces glabrous, stipitate-glandular or eglandular; petals single, rarely double, pink or rose, sometimes fading white, rarely white, 22–26 × 21–30 mm; stamens 120; carpels 26–43, styles exsert 1.5–2 mm beyond stylar orifice (1.5 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (3 mm diam.). Hips dull orange-red, globose, subglobose, or oblong, 10–11 × 7.5–13 mm, fleshy, glabrous, eglandular, rarely stipitate-glandular, neck 0–2 mm; sepals persistent, erect at hip maturity. Achenes basiparietal, 12–15, dark buff, ellipsoid, 4.5–5 × 2.5 mm. 2n = 28.


Phenology: Flowering May–Jul.
Habitat: Rocky slopes, dry hillsides, prairies, bluffs, open woods, grassy roadsides
Elevation: 200–2100 m

Distribution

V9 152-distribution-map.jpg

Alta., B.C., Man., Ont., Sask., Ark., Colo., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Maine, Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., S.Dak., Tex., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

Rosa arkansana is one of the more invasive indigenous roses in North America. Collections from Maine, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Ontario, Quebec, and Vermont, where nativity is unknown, are introductions that by and large are ephemeral. In other states where R. arkansana is native, disjunct populations may be either introduced or ephemeral, including those in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and north-central Texas in disturbed areas. It is indigenous from northeastern British Columbia to Manitoba, east to Ohio, western Missouri, northeastern New Mexico, and Colorado in prairies and plains, and within the eastern Rocky Mountains of the North American Prairies Province (A. Cronquist 1982).

Rosa arkansana possibly arose from the diploid R. blanda and R. woodsii complex as an autopolyploid (S. Joly et al. 2006). It hybridizes with R. carolina; the hybrids are known as R. ×medioccidentis W. H. Lewis.

The Chippewa use root infusions or decoctions of Rosa arkansana as anticonvulsants, to treat bleeding wounds, and as stimulants and tonics; Omahas (Nebraska) use roots as an eye medicine and petals as a perfume for hair oil (D. E. Moerman 1998).

In a breeding program initiated by Agriculture-Canada to establish winter hardy roses for the Canadian prairies, the best results were obtained by crossing Rosa arkansana and, sometimes, R. spinosissima with floribundas and hybrid teas to produce new cultivars such as ‘Prairie Joy’ (L. M. Collicutt 1992) and ‘Winnipeg Parks’ (Collicutt 1992b).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Rosa arkansana"
stipitate-glandular +, glabrous +  and pubescent +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
basiparietal +  and basal +
ellipsoid +
pubescent +  and glaucous +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Walter H. Lewis +, Barbara Ertter +  and Anne Bruneau +
Porter in T. C. Porter and J. M. Coulter +
red +  and purplish red +
exfoliating +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
gland-tipped +
not cuneate +
smallest +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6.3 cm63 mm <br />0.063 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
lustrous +  and dull +
obovate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
8mm +  and 20mm +
persistent +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
lanceolate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
Prairie rose +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, Ark. +, Colo. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +, Wis. +  and Wyo. +
not +  and aggregated +
200–2100 m +
3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
eglandular +  and glandular +
urceolate +, pyriform +, oblong +, ellipsoid +, ovoid-obovoid +  and globose +
Rocky slopes, dry hillsides, prairies, bluffs, open woods, grassy roadsides +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
orange-red +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrous +
oblong +, subglobose +  and globose +
0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
conic +  and flat +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
purplish black +, purplish red +, orange-red +  and red +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
leathery +  and fleshy +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
3-foliate +  and compound +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (16 cm160 mm <br />0.16 m <br />) +
deciduous +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
leathery +  and membranous +
petiolulate +  and subsessile +
elliptic +  and obovate more or less oblong obovate-elliptic lanceolate-elliptic or obovate-oblong +
entire +  and 1(-2+)-serrate +
entire +, pinnatifid +, glandular-serrate +, or +  and undulate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
distinct +
0.5mm +  and 1.5mm +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
1-30(-50)-flowered +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
White (?) +, Fading white (?) +, Rose (?) +  and Pink (?) +
free +  and distinct +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +, glabrous +  and pubescent +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Jul. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
mixed +  and paired +
declined +  and erect +
subulate +, deltate +, terete +  and hooked +
in T. C. Porter and J. M. Coulter, Syn. Fl. Colorado, +
stipitate-glandular +, glabrous +  and pubescent +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
not arillate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and spreading +
lanceolate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
rarely densely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
flexuous +
procumbent +  and sprawling +
1 +  and 20 +
stout +  and slender +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
persistent +
not elongate +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and puberulent +
Rosa alcea +, R. arkansana var. suffulta +, R. conjuncta +  and R. suffulta +
Rosa arkansana +
Rosa sect. Rosa +
species +
3mm +  and 7mm +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
gland-tipped +  and eglandular +
8 +  and 16 +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +
rhizomatous +  and open +
small +  and miniature +