Rosa californica

Chamisso & Schlechtendal

Linnaea 2: 35. 1827.

Common names: California rose
Illustrated
Synonyms: Rosa aldersonii Greene
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 111. Mentioned on page 94, 97, 109, 112, 116.

Shrubs, usually forming thickets. Stems ascending to erect, 8–25 (–30) dm, densely to openly branched; bark often glaucous when young, dark reddish-brown with age sometimes exfoliating as thin ash-gray sheets, glabrous; infrastipular prickles 1–2 (–3), strongly curved to nearly erect, ± flattened, stout, subulate, 3–15 (–20) × 2.5–8 mm (to 10–15 mm), base glabrous, internodal prickles usually absent, sometimes sparse, smaller, aciculi usually absent, rarely stipitate-glandular. Leaves (2–) 4–14 cm; stipules 5–20 × 2–5 mm, auricles flared to erect, 2–5 mm, margins entire or serrate, stipitate-glandular, surfaces glabrous, eglandular; petiole and rachis sometimes with pricklets, usually sparsely to densely hairy hairs to 1 mm, rarely glabrate, sometimes stipitate-glandular; leaflets 5–7 (–9), terminal: petiolule 5–15 (–20) mm, blade ovate to elliptic, sometimes obovate, (10–) 15–40 (–60) × 10–25 (–30) mm, usually widest at or below middle, membranous to ± leathery, margins 1–2-serrate, teeth 7–20 per side on distal 3/4–4/5 of margin, obtuse to acute, eglandular or gland-tipped, apex ± obtuse, sometimes acute, abaxial surfaces pale green, sparsely to abundantly shaggy-hairy, sometimes more finely hairy and/or sparsely glandular, adaxial green, dull, sparsely hairy to subglabrous. Inflorescences panicles, few corymbs, (1–) 3–30 (–50) -flowered. Pedicels erect, slender, 3–20 mm, hairy, rarely glabrous, eglandular, rarely glandular; bracts 1–3, broadly lanceolate, 8–20 × 2–10 mm, margins entire or serrate, eglandular or stipitate-glandular, surfaces ± hairy, eglandular. Flowers 2.5–5 cm diam.; hypanthium ± ovoid, 4–6 × 3–5.5 mm, glabrous or sparsely hairy, eglandular, neck 1 × 2–4.5 mm; sepals spreading, ovatelanceolate, 10–15 × 2–4.5 mm, tip 1–5 × 0.3–1 mm, margins entire, eglandular, sometimes glandular, abaxial surfaces ± hairy, eglandular, sometimes stipitate-glandular; petals single, pink, (10–) 15–25 × (10–) 15–25 mm; stamens 90; carpels (20–) 25–40, styles exsert 1–2.5 mm beyond stylar orifice (1.5–2 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (3–4 mm diam.). Hips scarlet, ± ovoid, sometimes globose to obovoid, 10–18 × 7–20 mm, fleshy, glabrous or ± hairy, eglandular, neck 0.5–2 × (2.5–) 3–5 (–6) mm; sepals persistent, usually erect. Achenes basiparietal, (1–) 5–20, cream to pale-brown, (3–) 3.5–4.5 (–5) × 2–3 mm. 2n = 28.


Phenology: Flowering Feb–Nov.
Habitat: Sunny streamsides, slough banks, mesic draws, moist areas in open woodlands, brushlands, and grasslands
Elevation: 0–1800 m

Distribution

V9 164-distribution-map.jpg

Calif., Oreg., Mexico (Baja California)

Discussion

Rosa californica is the common thicket-forming rose in the California Floristic Province, barely entering the Mojave Desert along the Mojave River at Victorville; Oregon occurrences are problematic. Characteristics that distinguish R. californica include large compressed, often strongly curved to nearly erect prickles, shaggy leaf vestiture, leaflets most commonly ovate with obtuse apices and cuneate to rounded to subcordate bases, numerous flowers with hairy pedicels, and large ovoid hips.

Some patterns of intraspecific variation in Rosa californica correlate with the ecogeographic complexity of the California Floristic Province, and they gain significance given the extent to which the plants are used in restoration efforts. Among those ecogeographic variants that may merit taxonomic recognition are: the hartwegiana phase, comprising exceptionally robust populations in the Central Valley with consistently hooked prickles, elliptic, short-hairy leaflets with acute apices, and relatively numerous flowers; the nutkanoid phase, consisting of scattered coastal populations that combine characteristics of R. californica (for example, hip size) and R. nutkana (for example, exceptionally heavy armature); and the orthacantha phase occurring in brushlands and open woodlands around Monterey and San Francisco bays and tending to have prominent pairs of erect infrastipular prickles, 1–3 flowers on elongate pedicels that exceed the subtending bracts, and ellipsoid hips containing relatively large achenes, possibly resulting from introgression with R. gymnocarpa. Variety orthacantha C. Presl probably represents this last phase.

The Costanoans of Californian Santa Clara Valley used hip decoctions of Rosa californica for treating indigestion, sore throat, fever, colds, rheumatism, and kidney ailments, and as a wash for scabs and sores (B. R. Bocek 1984).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Rosa californica"
stipitate-glandular +, hairy +, glandular +  and shaggy-hairy +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
cream +  and pale-brown +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
basiparietal +  and basal +
2mm +  and 3mm +
sparsely hairy +  and subglabrous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
lustrous +  and dull +
exfoliating +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Walter H. Lewis +, Barbara Ertter +  and Anne Bruneau +
Chamisso & Schlechtendal +
dark reddish-brown +
glabrous +  and glaucous +
exfoliating +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
not cuneate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
lustrous +  and dull +
obovate +, ovate +  and elliptic +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
widest +, 10mm +  and 25mm +
persistent +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
lanceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
California rose +
(1-)3-30(-50)-flowered +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Calif. +, Oreg. +  and Mexico (Baja California) +
not +  and aggregated +
0–1800 m +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
eglandular +  and glandular +
urceolate +, pyriform +, oblong +, ellipsoid +, ovoid-obovoid +  and globose +
Sunny streamsides, slough banks, mesic draws, moist areas in open woodlands, brushlands, and grasslands +
stipitate-glandular +, glabrate +  and hairy +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
globose +  and obovoid +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
conic +  and flat +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
purplish black +, purplish red +, orange-red +  and red +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
leathery +  and fleshy +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
stipitate-glandular +
3-foliate +  and compound +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
deciduous +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
leathery +  and membranous +
petiolulate +  and subsessile +
elliptic +  and obovate more or less oblong obovate-elliptic lanceolate-elliptic or obovate-oblong +
entire +, serrate +  and 1-2-serrate +
stipitate-glandular +
pinnatifid +, entire +, undulate +, sinuate +  and serrulate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
distinct +
0.5mm +  and 2mm +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
1-30(-50)-flowered +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and hairy +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Flowering Feb–Nov. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
mixed +  and paired +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
1 +  and 2 +
subulate +  and flattened +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
not arillate +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and spreading +
ovatelanceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
rarely densely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
flexuous +
procumbent +  and sprawling +
ascending +  and erect +
1 +  and 20 +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
persistent +
not elongate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Rosa aldersonii +
Rosa californica +
Rosa sect. Rosa +
species +
1mm +  and 5mm +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
gland-tipped +  and eglandular +
7 +  and 20 +
obtuse +  and acute +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +
rhizomatous +  and open +
small +  and miniature +