Rosa gymnocarpa

Nuttall in J. Torrey and A. Gray

in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 461. 1840.

EndemicIllustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 116. Mentioned on page 94, 95, 96, 112, 117, 119.

Shrubs or subshrubs, usually loosely clustered. Stems erect, sometimes spreading, slender, (1–) 3–15 (–25) dm, sparsely or densely branched; bark sometimes glaucous, reddish-brown with age, glabrous; infrastipular prickles 0–2, erect, subulate, 2–8 (–10) × 1.5 mm, terete, internodal prickles similar or smaller, sparse to dense, sometimes absent on distal stems, mixed with aciculi, base terete, eglandular. Leaves (2–) 4–10 (–17) cm; stipules 5–15 × 2–5 mm, auricles flared, 2–3 mm, margins entire, stipitate-glandular, surfaces glabrous, eglandular; petiole and rachis with pricklets, glabrous, rarely finely puberulent, sparsely stipitate-glandular; leaflets 5–9 (–11), terminal: petiolule (2–) 5–12 (–20) mm, blade elliptic to obovate or ovate to nearly orbiculate, (4–) 10–40 (–60) × (4–) 10–20 (–40) mm, membranous to ± leathery, margins 2+-serrate, teeth 7–13 per side, obtuse to acute, gland-tipped, apex obtuse, sometimes nearly acute, rounded, or truncate, abaxial surfaces pale green, glabrous, eglandular, adaxial green, dull, glabrous. Inflorescences corymbs, usually 1–3-flowered, rarely in multiflowered candelabras. Pedicels erect, ± curved as hips mature, slender, 10–25 (–35) mm, glabrous, stipitate-glandular, rarely eglandular (except var. serpentina); bracts some early caducous, 1 or 2, attached near pedicel bases, ovate or lanceolate, 4–12 × 2–8 mm, margins entire, short-stipitate-glandular, apex acute or rounded, surfaces glabrous, eglandular. Flowers 1.5–3 cm diam.; hypanthium narrowly ovoid-urceolate, 2–4 × 1.5–2 mm, glabrous, eglandular, neck 0–1 × 1.5 mm; sepals ascending to reflexed, lanceolate, 5–10 × 2–3 mm, tip 0.1–5 × 1 mm, margins entire, abaxial surfaces glabrous, eglandular, sometimes stipitate-glandular; petals single, deep pink, 8–15 × 6–13 mm; stamens 57; carpels 3–12 (–16), styles exsert 1–1.5 mm beyond stylar orifice (1 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (2–4 mm diam.). Hips scarlet, irregularly ellipsoid or ellipsoid to nearly globose, 7–15 × 5–13 mm, fleshy, glabrous, eglandular, neck 0–2 × 1.5–2.5 mm; sepals, styles, and distal receptacle collectively deciduous at fruit maturity along well-defined, circumscissile line, erect to reflexed. Achenes basiparietal, (1–) 4–10 (–12), cream to pale-brown, (3–) 4.5–7 × 2–4 mm.

Distribution

V9 172-distribution-map.jpg

B.C., Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash.

Discussion

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Rosa gymnocarpa is most easily distinguished in mature fruit, in that the sepals collectively and cleanly separate from the hip together with styles and, sometimes, associated hypanthia. Other diagnostic features include solitary to few, small flowers, stipitate-glandular pedicels, hypanthia extremely small in bud, and glabrous leaflets doubly glandular-toothed. The species is also one of the relatively few roses that flourishes in partial shade. Rosa gymnocarpa occurs in forested areas from British Columbia and Montana to central California, with disjunct populations in southern California; it skirts the Great Basin, with the possible exception of the type of R. leucopsis Greene, a likely synonym, purportedly from central Oregon’s sagebrush steppe, which is otherwise devoid of the species (A. Cronquist and N. H. Holmgren 1997).

The distinctive features of Rosa gymnocarpa have been used as the basis for sect. Gymnocarpae Crépin. Recognition of that section is not supported by the molecular analysis by A. Bruneau et al. (2007), in which R. gymnocarpa occurs in a clade with R. pinetorum and one sample of R. californica, separate from a distinct clade that groups diverse specimens of R. bridgesii, R. spithamea, and some Asian species of sect. Rosa.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Leaflets (5–)7–9(–11), terminal blades elliptic to narrowly obovate or ovate, (5–)10–30(–60) mm, apices usually obtuse, sometimes nearly acute or rounded; pedicels (10–)15–25(–35) mm; stems 3–15(–25) dm; light shade (rarely full sun) in open woodlands, forest edges, often near streams or rocky sites; s British Columbia to s California, e to Montana. Rosa gymnocarpa var. gymnocarpa
1 Leaflets 5(–7), terminal blades broadly elliptic to obovate or ovate to nearly orbiculate, 4–20 mm, apices usually broadly obtuse to rounded, sometimes nearly truncate; pedicels 10–15 mm; stems (1–)3–6(–13) dm; full sun in roadsides, ridges, and other openings in chaparral and stunted forests on ultramafic substrates; Siskiyou Mountains, sw Oregon and nw California. Rosa gymnocarpa var. serpentina

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Rosa gymnocarpa"
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrous +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
cream +  and pale-brown +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
basiparietal +  and basal +
2mm +  and 4mm +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Walter H. Lewis +, Barbara Ertter +  and Anne Bruneau +
Nuttall in J. Torrey and A. Gray +
reddish-brown +
glabrous +  and glaucous +
exfoliating +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
lustrous +  and dull +
elliptic +  and obovate or ovate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
10mm +  and 20mm +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
B.C. +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
not +  and aggregated +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
eglandular +  and glandular +
urceolate +, pyriform +, oblong +, ellipsoid +, ovoid-obovoid +  and globose +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
ellipsoid +  and nearly globose +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
conic +  and flat +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
purplish black +, purplish red +, orange-red +  and red +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
leathery +  and fleshy +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
sparse +  and dense +
3-foliate +  and compound +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br />) +
deciduous +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
leathery +  and membranous +
petiolulate +  and subsessile +
elliptic +  and obovate more or less oblong obovate-elliptic lanceolate-elliptic or obovate-oblong +
circumscissile +
well-defined +
entire +  and 2+-serrate +
short-stipitate-glandular +  and stipitate-glandular +
pinnatifid +, entire +, undulate +, sinuate +  and serrulate +
distinct +
0mm +  and 2mm +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
1-30(-50)-flowered +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrous +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +, puberulent +  and glabrous +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
mixed +  and paired +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0 +  and 2 +
terete +  and subulate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
in J. Torrey and A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. +
stipitate-glandular +, puberulent +  and glabrous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
not arillate +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
deciduous +  and persistent +
free +  and distinct +
ascending +  and reflexed +
lanceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
rarely densely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
flexuous +
procumbent +  and sprawling +
spreading +  and erect +
1 +  and 20 +
slender +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
persistent +
not elongate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
Rosa sect. Cinnamomeae +
Rosa gymnocarpa +
Rosa sect. Rosa +
species +
0.1mm +  and 5mm +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
gland-tipped +
7 +  and 13 +
obtuse +  and acute +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +
rhizomatous +  and open +
subshrub +  and shrub +
small +  and miniature +