Rosa rugosa

Thunberg in J. A. Murray

in J. A. Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14, 473. 1784.

Common names: Japanese rugose or Sitka rose rosier rugueux
IntroducedWeedy
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 98. Mentioned on page 94, 96, 99, 105, 112.

Shrubs, forming thickets. Stems erect, sometimes arching, 10–25 dm, densely branched; bark greenish white when young, purplish black with age, densely tomentose or puberulent; infrastipular prickles paired, erect, stout, subulate, 10 × 4 mm, base pubescent, internodal prickles similar, densely mixed with aciculi and stipitate-glands. Leaves 7–11 cm; stipules 20–30 × 4–7 mm, auricles flared, 4–6 mm, margins entire or unevenly serrate, sessile-glandular, surfaces rugose, glabrous or pubescent, glandular; petiole and rachis with pricklets usually curved, subequal, pubescent, usually sparsely glandular; leaflets 5–9, terminal: petiolule 8–18 mm, blade widely elliptic to ovate, rarely obovate, 20–55 × 10–35 mm, leathery, rugose, base cuneate to obtuse, margins usually 1-crenate-serrate, eglandular, sometimes gland-tipped, teeth 11–17 per side, sometimes gland-tipped, apex obtuse to acute, abaxial surfaces gray-green, deeply veined, pubescent, eglandular, adaxial dark green, lustrous, rugose, glabrous. Inflorescences corymbs, 1 (–4) -flowered. Pedicels erect, sometimes reflexed (as hip matures), stout, 10–15 (–30) mm, pubescent, sometimes setose, sparsely sessile or stipitate-glandular; bracts 2, ovatelanceolate, 12 (–15) × 2 (–5) mm, margins entire with few hairs, eglandular or gland-tipped, surfaces pubescent, glandular. Flowers 6–9 cm diam.; hypanthium depressed-globose, 6–8 × 5–6 mm, glabrous, sometimes setose overall or only in neck area, eglandular, rarely glandular, neck 1–2 × 4–5 mm; sepals erect, ovatelanceolate, 20–37 × 4–6 mm, tip 4–5 × 1–2 mm, margins entire, rarely pinnatifid, tomentose, glandular, abaxial surfaces pubescent, sessile and stipitate-glandular, often setose; petals single, sometimes double (cultivars), purplish-pink or white, 35–50 × 30–45 mm; carpels 48–60, styles exsert 1–2 mm beyond stylar orifice of hypanthial disc (5–10 mm diam.). Hips scarlet, depressed-globose, 18–20 × 20–25 mm, leathery, glabrous, sometimes setose, eglandular, rarely glandular, neck 1–2 × 4–5 mm; sepals persistent, erect. Achenes basiparietal, 40, tan, 4–6 × 2–4.5 mm. 2n = 14.


Phenology: Flowering Jun–Jul(–Oct).
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, fields, maritime dunes and bluffs, shores, riparian sites
Elevation: 0–1000 m

Distribution

V9 144-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon, B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Alaska, Conn., Del., Ill., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Asia (n China), Asia (Japan), Asia (Siberia), also in Europe

Discussion

Rosa rugosa is possibly indigenous to the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska; such nativity requires further study. Elsewhere in Alaska and other northern habitats, particularly near coastal estuaries and dunes, the species is widely naturalized in North America. It is readily identified by its rugose, leathery leaflets with deep veins, distal branches that are densely tomentose, and flowers 6–9 cm diam., consisting of mostly purplish pink double petals. It can be weedy and is invasive in eastern parts of the United States and Canada, especially along coastlines and waterways.

Some Rosa rugosa hybrids are recognized by their reticulated, deeply veined, rugose, and dark green leaves. The most widespread naturalized hybrid is R. ×hollandica Persoon ex Steudel (Dutch rose), found throughout central and northern Europe, where it has been widely used as rootstock for grafting and budding. In 2010, A. V. Gilman discovered and identified the hybrid in five Vermont localities and, together with D. Werier, also found robust shrubs in an open pasture in Schuyler County, New York.

Gallic acid derivatives and polysaccharides, found in aqueous extracts of Rosa rugosa flowers, demonstrated major antioxidant activity (T. B. Ng et al. 2004). In experiments with animals, extracts of R. rugosa alleviated oxidative stress associated with diabetes by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (E. J. Cho et al. 2004).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Rosa rugosa"
sessile +, eglandular +  and veined +
setose +, stipitate-glandular +  and pubescent +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
basiparietal +  and basal +
2mm +  and 4.5mm +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Walter H. Lewis +, Barbara Ertter +  and Anne Bruneau +
Thunberg in J. A. Murray +
purplish black +  and greenish white +
puberulent +  and tomentose +
exfoliating +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +  and obtuse +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6.3 cm63 mm <br />0.063 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
lustrous +  and dull +
obovate +, widely elliptic +  and ovate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
10mm +  and 35mm +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
persistent +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (?) +
ovatelanceolate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
free +  and distinct +
Japanese +, rugose +, or Sitka rose +  and rosier rugueux +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Alaska +, Conn. +, Del. +, Ill. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Asia (n China) +, Asia (Japan) +, Asia (Siberia) +  and also in Europe +
not +  and aggregated +
0–1000 m +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
eglandular +  and glandular +
urceolate +, pyriform +, oblong +, ellipsoid +, ovoid-obovoid +  and globose +
Disturbed areas, roadsides, fields, maritime dunes and bluffs, shores, riparian sites +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
setose +  and glabrous +
depressed-globose +
leathery +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
conic +  and flat +
setose-glandular +, stipitate +  and eglandular +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
purplish black +, purplish red +, orange-red +  and red +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
setose +  and glabrous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
leathery +  and fleshy +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
3-foliate +  and compound +
11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br /> (17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br />) +
deciduous +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
leathery +  and membranous +
petiolulate +  and subsessile +
elliptic +  and obovate more or less oblong obovate-elliptic lanceolate-elliptic or obovate-oblong +
gland-tipped +  and eglandular +
glandular +  and sessile-glandular +
entire +, 1-crenate-serrate +  and serrate +
pinnatifid +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
distinct +
1mm +  and 2mm +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
1-30(-50)-flowered +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
reflexed +  and erect +
stipitate-glandular +, setose +  and pubescent +
stout +  and slender +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
subequal +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
Flowering Jun–Jul(–Oct). +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (?) +
in J. A. Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. +
subequal +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
not arillate +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
ovatelanceolate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
rarely densely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Introduced +  and Weedy +
free +  and distinct +
flexuous +
procumbent +  and sprawling +
arching +  and erect +
1 +  and 20 +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
persistent +
not elongate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
glandular +  and eglandular +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
Rosa sect. Cinnamomeae +
Rosa rugosa +
Rosa sect. Rosa +
species +
4mm +  and 5mm +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
gland-tipped +
11 +  and 17 +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +
rhizomatous +  and open +
small +  and miniature +