Rosa woodsii

Lindley

Ros. Monogr., 21. 1820.

Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 105. Mentioned on page 95, 96, 97, 104, 106, 108, 110, 112.

Shrubs, forming thickets or ± open stands. Stems erect, slender to stout, 2–20 (–50) dm, densely or openly branched; bark dark red, glabrous; infrastipular prickles usually paired, sometimes absent, erect or curved to hooked, declined, or introrse, usually subulate, sometimes terete or flattened, stout, (0.5–) 2–7 (–13) × 1–5 mm, base glabrous, internodal prickles usually sparse to dense, often intermixed with aciculi. Leaves 2.5–8 (–12) cm; stipules (6–) 9–16 (–25) × 2–5 mm, auricles usually flared, 2–6 mm, margins usually entire, sometimes undulate, sparsely serrate, eglandular or glandular, surfaces glabrous, eglandular, rarely glandular; petiole and rachis with pricklets sparse or absent, usually puberulent-velutinous hairs 0.1 (–0.5) mm, rarely glabrate, eglandular, rarely stipitate-glandular; leaflets 5–7 (–9), terminal: petiolule 3–12 mm, blade obovate, elliptic, or ovate, rarely cordate, (6–) 12–35 (–40) × 6–20 (–26) mm, usually widest at or above middle, membranous, base cuneate, rarely obtuse, margins 1 (–2+) -serrate, teeth (5–) 7–14 per side, on distal 1/2–4/5 of margin, acute, usually eglandular, apex acute or obtuse, abaxial surfaces pale green, glabrous, sometimes pubescent or puberulent, eglandular, sometimes glandular, adaxial green, rarely glaucous, dull, glabrous. Inflorescences usually panicles, sometimes corymbs or solitary flowers, 1–10 (–25+) -flowered. Pedicels erect, slender, 10–20 (–33) mm, glabrous, eglandular, rarely stipitate-glandular; bracts 2, ovate or lanceolate, (6–) 9–20 × 4–9 mm, margins entire or ciliate, eglandular, sometimes sparsely glandular, surfaces pubescent, eglandular. Flowers (2–) 3–3.5 (–5) cm diam.; hypanthium ovoid, rarely oblong or globose, 3–6 × 3–5 mm, glabrous, eglandular, rarely stipitate-glandular, neck (0–) 0.5–1 × 1.5–3.5 mm; sepals spreading, ovatelanceolate, 8–15 (–21) × 1.5–2.5 mm, tip 4–6 × 0.3–1 (–2) mm, margins usually entire, abaxial surfaces glabrous, eglandular, sometimes sessile or stipitate-glandular; petals single, pink to deep rose, 15–20 (–25) × 15–20 (–25) mm; stamens 65; carpels (16–) 20–40 (–50), styles exsert 1–2 mm beyond stylar orifice (2–2.5 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (3–5 mm diam.). Hips red, orange-red, or purplish red, globose, depressed-globose, ovoid, oblong, or urceolate, 6–13 (–16) × 5–12 (–15) mm, fleshy, usually glabrous, eglandular, neck (0–) 1–2 × 3–4 (–7) mm; sepals persistent, erect to spreading. Achenes basiparietal, 15–40, tan to dark tan, (3.5–) 4–5 (–6) × 2–4 mm.

Distribution

V9 154-distribution-map.jpg

Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Ont., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Iowa, Kans., Minn., Mont., N.Dak., N.Mex., Nebr., Nev., Okla., Oreg., S.Dak., Tex., Utah, Wash., Wyo., n Mexico

Discussion

Subspecies 6 (6 in the flora).

Rosa woodsii is the most common and most variable rose species in central and western North America (W. H. Lewis and B. Ertter 2007, 2010). Among its diagnostic features are relatively slender prickles, usually 1-serrate, eglandular leaflets, and a finely velutinous indument of 0.2–0.5 mm hairs on petioles and rachises. Its range extends from the prairies of Canada and the United States to inland Alaska and to north-central New Mexico, California east of the Cascade Mountains and Sierra Nevada, and northern Mexico.

At least 25 species names have been proposed to accommodate variation encompassed here within Rosa woodsii; some of these names have been used extensively (for example, R. fendleri Crépin, R. macounii Greene). The six subspecies recognized here represent significant morphological tendencies occurring in well-defined ecogeographic settings (W. H. Lewis and B. Ertter 2007, 2010). Localized varieties are recognized within two of the subspecies. Plants with intermediate characteristics often occur in transitional zones, and occasional anomalous collections display features not otherwise characteristic of a given ecogeographic region.

Leaves of Rosa woodsii inhibit HIV-1 replication in acutely infected cells. Both oleanolic and pomolic acids were identified as anti-HIV agents (Y. Kashiwada et al. 1998). Root decoctions of R. woodsii were drunk by the Shoshoni as a blood tonic for general debility and to treat diarrhea, and also by the Paiute for treating diarrhea (W. H. Lewis and M. P. F. Elvin-Lewis 2003).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Infrastipular prickles usually erect (erect or curved in subsp. gratissima, rarely curved in subsp. woodsii), sometimes absent; sepals abaxially eglandular, rarely stipitate-glandular (except subsp. woodsii n of 49° parallel); mostly w of Wasatch Range or e of Continental Divide > 2
1 Infrastipular prickles usually curved or hooked, rarely absent; sepals often abaxially stipitate-glandular (except subsp. puberulenta); centered in Colorado Plateau Subprovince > 4
2 Shrubs 2–10(–20) dm; stems usually densely branched; terminal leaflets usually obovate; centered in prairies and plains e of Continental Divide, occasionally extending w through passes. Rosa woodsii subsp. woodsii
2 Shrubs usually 10–30(–50) dm; stems openly to densely branched; terminal leaflets ovate, ovate-elliptic, obovate, or elliptic; mostly within or w of Wasatch Range and n Rocky Mountains > 3
3 Prickles sparse or absent on distal stems and branches; stems openly branched; inflorescences (1–)3–10(–25)-flowered; centered in n Great Basin and Columbia Plateau. Rosa woodsii subsp. ultramontana
3 Prickles usually abundant on distal stems and branches; stems densely branched; inflorescences 1–3(–5+)-flowered; centered in Mojave Desert. Rosa woodsii subsp. gratissima
4 Shrubs 2–10(+) dm; stems usually densely branched; terminal leaflets obovate, sometimes ovate or elliptic; high montane forests to scrub oak woodlands, 2100–3300 m. Rosa woodsii subsp. manca
4 Shrubs 10–25+ dm; stems openly branched; terminal leaflets elliptic, rarely cordate or ovate; riparian sites in bottomlands, extending into mountains along waterways, 1300–2400 m > 5
5 Sepals usually eglandular abaxially; prickles usually falcate, sometimes erect, declined, or introrse; terminal leaflets 20–40 mm; center of Colorado Plateau Subprovince. Rosa woodsii subsp. puberulenta
5 Sepals usually densely stipitate-glandular abaxially; prickles usually strongly curved or hooked, sometimes introrse; terminal leaflets 10–30 mm; Apachian and s edge of Colorado Plateau Subprovinces. Rosa woodsii subsp. arizonica

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Rosa woodsii"
sessile +  and eglandular +
stipitate-glandular +, glabrous +, puberulent +  and pubescent +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
tan +  and dark tan +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
basiparietal +  and basal +
2mm +  and 4mm +
glabrous +  and glaucous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
lustrous +  and dull +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Walter H. Lewis +, Barbara Ertter +  and Anne Bruneau +
Lindley +
exfoliating +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
obtuse +  and cuneate +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
lustrous +  and dull +
cordate +, ovate +, elliptic +  and obovate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
widest +, 6mm +  and 20mm +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
persistent +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, N.Mex. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Wash. +, Wyo. +  and n Mexico +
not +  and aggregated +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
eglandular +  and glandular +
urceolate +, pyriform +, oblong +, ellipsoid +, ovoid-obovoid +  and globose +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
puberulent-velutinous +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (?) +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
purplish red +, orange-red +  and red +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
urceolate +, oblong +, ovoid +, depressed-globose +  and globose +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
conic +  and flat +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
purplish black +, purplish red +, orange-red +  and red +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrous +
Globose (?) +, Oblong (?) +  and Ovoid (?) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
leathery +  and fleshy +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1-10(-25+)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
usually sparse +  and dense +
3-foliate +  and compound +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
deciduous +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
leathery +  and membranous +
petiolulate +  and subsessile +
elliptic +  and obovate more or less oblong obovate-elliptic lanceolate-elliptic or obovate-oblong +
eglandular +, ciliate +  and entire +
entire +, 1(-2+)-serrate +  and serrate +
undulate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
distinct +
1mm +  and 2mm +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
1-30(-50)-flowered +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrous +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
declined +  and erect +
flattened +, terete +, subulate +  and hooked +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Ros. Monogr., +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
not arillate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br />) +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and spreading +
ovatelanceolate +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
rarely densely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
flexuous +
procumbent +  and sprawling +
1 +  and 20 +
slender +  and stout +
1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
persistent +
not elongate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
Rosa sect. Cinnamomeae +
Rosa woodsii +
Rosa sect. Rosa +
species +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
4mm +  and 6mm +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
7 +  and 14 +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +
rhizomatous +  and open +
small +  and miniature +