Salix caprea

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 1020. 1753.

Common names: Goat or hoary willow
WeedyIntroduced
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 131. Mentioned on page 94, 132, 133, 149.

Shrubs or trees, 8–15 m. Stems: branches brownish, not glaucous, pubescent to glabrescent, (peeled wood smooth or striate, striae sparse, to 6 mm); branchlets yellowbrown or gray-brown, sparsely to densely villous, velvety, or pubescent. Leaves: stipules rudimentary on early ones, foliaceous on late ones, apex acute or convex; petiole convex to flat adaxially, 7–25 mm, tomentose to glabrescent adaxially; largest medial blade narrowly elliptic, broadly elliptic, oblanceolate, obovate, or broadly oblong, 50–130 × 25–80 mm, 2–3 times as long as wide, base cuneate or convex, margins slightly revolute, entire, crenate, or sinuate, (glands submarginal or epilaminal), apex acuminate or convex, abaxial surface glaucous, sparsely tomentose or pubescent, hairs erect, wavy, adaxial dull or slightly glossy, sparsely pubescent; proximal blade margins entire; juvenile blade green, densely tomentose abaxially, hairs white, sometimes also ferruginous. Catkins flowering before leaves emerge; staminate subglobose or globose, 16–39 × 12–30 mm, flowering branchlet 0–3 mm; pistillate densely flowered, stout or subglobose, 27–64 × 10–25 mm, flowering branchlet 0–7 mm; floral bract dark-brown or black, 2–4 mm, apex acute or rounded, abaxially hairy, hairs (white), straight. Staminate flowers: adaxial nectary oblong or square, 0.4–0.7 mm; filaments distinct, glabrous; anthers yellow, ellipsoid or shortly cylindrical, 0.7–1.1 mm. Pistillate flowers: adaxial nectary oblong, narrowly oblong, or square, 0.4–0.9 mm, shorter than stipe; stipe 2–2.5 mm; ovary pyriform, densely short-silky, beak gradually tapering to styles; ovules 12–14 per ovary; styles 0.3–0.6 mm; stigmas slenderly cylindrical, 0.4–0.55–0.6 mm. Capsules 6–12 mm. 2n = 38.


Phenology: Flowering mid Mar-mid Jun.
Habitat: Thickets and roadsides
Elevation: 20-4600 m

Distribution

V7 140-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Ont., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Ill., Md., Mass., Mich., Nebr., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., Wash., Europe

Discussion

Hybrids:

Salix ×smithiana Willdenow: S. caprea × S. viminalis is an introduced European hybrid commonly naturalized in eastern Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island), where it was introduced for coarse basketry. Only pistillate specimens are known and seed-set has not been noted. Its spread is apparently by cultivation and stem fragmentation. It is characterized by: shrubs or trees, 2–10 m; branches yellow-brown, brownish, or gray-brown, pubescent to glabrescent, ± brittle at base, peeled 3–5 year-old branches smooth or striate, striae few, 0–6 mm; branchlets not glaucous, moderately densely pubescent; largest medial leaf blades very narrowly elliptic, narrowly elliptic, or narrowly oblong, 2.8–4.9(–6.4) times as long as wide, margins entire or sinuate, adaxial surfaces pubescent; catkins flowering before leaves emerge; stipes 0.9–2 mm; ovaries pyriform to obclavate, moderately to very densely short-silky; styles 0.5–1.2 mm; stigmas slenderly cylindrical, lobes 0.6–1.2 mm; and capsules 5–7 mm.

Hybrids Salix caprea × S. viminalis and S. cinerea × S. viminalis are commonly recognized in North American floras. They are difficult to separate and their nomenclature is confusing. I am following G. Larsson (1995), who typified S. ×smithiana and cited S. ×sericans (formerly S. cinerea × S. viminalis) and S. caprea × S. viminalis as synonyms. These two S. viminalis hybrids are very similar. Salix caprea × S. viminalis has wood with striae 2–6 mm and leaves usually broadest in the middle; S. cinerea × S. viminalis has decorticated wood with striae 10+ mm and leaves usually broader toward the tip (B. Jonsell and T. Karlsson 2000+, vol. 1). Authentic S. cinerea × S. viminalis has not been seen from the flora area.

See 86. Salix pellita and 98. S. viminalis for more discussion of morphologies.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"-0.6mm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Salix caprea"
21 +, 4 +, 1 +, 16 +  and 29 +
pubescent +, tomentose +  and glaucous +
square +  and oblong +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
glossy +  and dull +
cylindrical +  and ellipsoid +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
Rounded (?) +, Acute (?) +, Convex (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
George W. Argus +
Linnaeus +
convex +  and cuneate +
Salix sect. Vetrix +
tapering +
ferruginous +  and white +
toothed +  and 2-fid +
persistent +
pubescent +  and glabrescent +
flowered +  and pistillate +
pubescent +, velvety +  and villous +
subglobose +  and globose +
slender +  and stout +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
intermediate +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
pistillate +  and staminate +
pendulous +, spreading +  and erect +
staminate +
Goat or hoary willow +
Ont. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ill. +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Nebr. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, Wash. +  and Europe +
20-4600 m +
black +  and dark-brown +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
pistillate +  and staminate +
bisexual +  and unisexual +
Thickets and roadsides +
ferruginous +  and white +
straight +
unbranched +  and spicate +
subterminal +  and axillary +
membranaceous +
hemiamphistomatous +, amphistomatous +  and hypostomatous +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br />) +
oblong +, obovate +, oblanceolate +  and elliptic +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
arranged +  and alternate +
marcescent +
deciduous +
sinuate +, crenate +, entire +  and revolute +
2-7[-10]-carpellate +
short-silky +
pyriform +
glandular-dotted +
tomentose +  and glabrescent +
convex;flat +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
Flowering mid Mar-mid Jun. +
overlapping +
distinct +
Weedy +  and Introduced +
decumbent;erect +
non-papillate +
cylindrical +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
caducous +  and persistent +
distinct +  and connate +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
persistent +  and deciduous +
Salix caprea +
Salix sect. Cinerella +
species +
pointed +  and rounded +
sympodial +, branching +  and heterophyllous +
tree +  and shrub +