Salix caroliniana

Michaux

Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 226. 1803.

Common names: Carolina or coastal plain willow
WeedyIllustrated
Synonyms: Salix longipes var. venulosa (Andersson) C. K. Schneider Salix longipes var. wardii (Bebb) C. K. Schneider
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 34. Mentioned on page 27, 31, 36, 37.

Trees, 5–10 m. Stems: branches ± brittle at base, gray-brown to redbrown, glabrous, villous, or tomentose; branchlets yellowbrown to redbrown, glabrous, sparsely or densely villous or tomentose. Leaves: stipules rudimentary or foliaceous on early ones, foliaceous on late ones, apex convex to acute; petiole (with spherical glands distally), (3–) 4.5–14 (–22) mm, tomentose or pilose adaxially; largest medial blade lorate or lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, (50–) 75–115 (–220) × 10–22 (–35) mm, 5–10 times as long as wide, base usually convex or cuneate, sometimes rounded to cordate, margins serrate or serrulate, apex acuminate, acute, or caudate, abaxial surface glabrous or sparsely tomentose on midribs, hairs white and/or ferruginous, wavy, adaxial highly glossy, glabrous or pilose, hairs white and/or ferruginous; proximal blade margins entire or serrulate; juvenile blade glabrous, or moderately densely tomentose or silky abaxially, hairs white and ferruginous. Catkins: staminate 28–97 × 5–11 mm, flowering branchlet 4–25 mm; pistillate 33–93 × 7–15 mm, flowering branchlet 3–35 mm; floral bract 1–3 mm, apex acute or rounded, entire or erose, abaxially sparsely hairy, hairs wavy; pistillate bract deciduous after flowering. Staminate flowers: abaxial nectary 0.3–0.5 mm, adaxial nectary oblong to narrowly oblong, 0.3–0.6 mm, nectaries distinct; stamens 4–7; filaments (sometimes connate less than 1/2 their lengths), hairy basally; anthers 0.4–0.6 mm. Pistillate flowers: adaxial nectary oblong, square, or ovate, 0.3–0.7 mm; stipe 1.3–5.3 mm; ovary pyriform to obclavate, beak slightly bulged below styles; ovules 12–16 per ovary; styles (sometimes distinct distally), 0.1–0.2 mm; stigmas 0.16–0.2–0.28 mm. Capsules 4–6 mm.


Phenology: Flowering (south) Dec-early May, (north) mid Apr-early Jun.
Habitat: Alluvial woods on floodplains, swamps, hummocks, marshes, wet interdunal depressions, rocky or gravelly streambeds, ditches, canals, usually on calcareous substrates
Elevation: 0-600 m

Distribution

V7 23-distribution-map.gif

Ala., Ark., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Mexico (Nuevo León), West Indies (Cuba), Central America (Guatemala)

Discussion

Hybrids:

Salix caroliniana forms natural hybrids with S. nigra. Hybrids with S. amygdaloides have been reported (N. M. Glatfelter 1898); no convincing specimens have been seen.

Salix caroliniana × S. nigra: This hybrid is characterized by stipes to 1.3 mm and leaves glaucous; it probably occurs wherever the two parents come into contact. In the southeastern United States, it occurs from northern Florida to West Virginia and Maryland with intergradation mainly on the Atlantic coastal plain from northern Florida and southern Georgia (G. W. Argus 1986). Reports (N. M. Glatfelter 1898) of it from the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, are unconfirmed.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"-0.28mm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Salix caroliniana"
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
tomentose +  and glabrous +
ovate +, square +, oblong +  and narrowly oblong +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
erose +  and entire +
Rounded (?) +, Acute (?) +, Caudate (?) +, Acuminate (?) +  and Convex (?) +
George W. Argus +
Michaux +
rounded +  and cordate +
ferruginous +  and white +
serrulate +  and entire +
silky +, tomentose +  and glabrous +
toothed +  and 2-fid +
deciduous +
gray-brown +  and redbrown +
tomentose +, villous +  and glabrous +
tomentose +, villous +, or +  and glabrous +
slender +  and stout +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
pistillate +  and staminate +
3.3 cm33 mm <br />0.033 m <br /> (9.3 cm93 mm <br />0.093 m <br />) +
pendulous +, spreading +  and erect +
slender +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
Carolina or coastal plain willow +
Ala. +, Ark. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Md. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Mexico (Nuevo León) +, West Indies (Cuba) +  and Central America (Guatemala) +
0-600 m +
connate +  and distinct +
greenish +  and tawny +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
pistillate +  and staminate +
bisexual +  and unisexual +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
spherical +
Alluvial woods on floodplains, swamps, hummocks, marshes, wet interdunal depressions, rocky or gravelly streambeds, ditches, canals, usually on calcareous substrates +
white and ferruginous +, ferruginous +  and white +
unbranched +  and spicate +
subterminal +  and axillary +
membranaceous +
amphistomatous +  and hypostomatous +
linear +  and elliptic +
11.5 cm115 mm <br />0.115 m <br /> (22 cm220 mm <br />0.22 m <br />) +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br /> (11.5 cm115 mm <br />0.115 m <br />) +
lanceolate +  and narrowly lanceolate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
arranged +  and alternate +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
marcescent +
deciduous +
pilose +  and tomentose +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
serrulate +  and serrate +
rudimentary +
2-7[-10]-carpellate +
villous +  and glabrous +
pyriform +  and obclavate +
glandular-dotted +
Flowering (south) Dec-early May, (north) mid Apr-early Jun. +
Fl. Bor.-Amer. +
overlapping +
distinct +
Weedy +  and Illustrated +
branched +, sympodial +, monopodial +  and branching +
non-papillate +
cylindrical +
0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.53 cm5.3 mm <br />0.0053 m <br />) +
caducous +  and persistent +
distinct +  and connate +
tapering +
persistent +  and deciduous +
ferruginous +  and white +
Salix longipes var. venulosa +  and Salix longipes var. wardii +
Salix caroliniana +
Salix sect. Humboldtianae +
species +
rounded +
sympodial +, branching +  and heterophyllous +