Salix herbacea

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 1018. 1753.

Common names: Snowbed willow
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 67. Mentioned on page 62, 72, 73, 74, 80, 152.

Plants 0.005–0.05 m, (dwarf), forming clonal mats by rhizomes. Stems erect; branches redbrown to violet, (sometimes weakly glaucous), glabrous; branchlets yellowbrown or redbrown, glabrous. Leaves: stipules absent; petiole (convex or flat to deeply grooved adaxially), 1.5–6 (–7) mm; largest medial blade (2 pairs of secondary-veins arising at or close to base, arcing) circular, subcircular or broadly elliptic, 6–21 (–34) × 6–17 (–31) mm, 0.9–1.4 times as long as wide, base usually subcordate or cordate, sometimes convex or rounded, margins flat, crenulate or crenate, apex rounded, convex, retuse, or toothed, abaxial surface (not glaucous), glabrous, adaxial slightly glossy to almost dull, glabrous; proximal blade margins crenulate; juvenile blade glabrous. Catkins: from subterminal buds; staminate 3–7.5 × 1.5–5 mm, flowering branchlet 0.3–2 mm; pistillate loosely flowered (2–11 flowers), stout to globose, 3.3–13 × 2–10 mm, flowering branchlet 0.8–3.5 mm; floral bract tawny, light rose, or brown, 0.5–1.5 mm, margins ciliate, apex rounded, retuse, or truncate, entire, abaxially glabrous. Staminate flowers: abaxial nectary 0.5–0.8 mm, adaxial nectary oblong or ovate, 0.6–1.1 mm, nectaries distinct, or connate and shallowly cupshaped; filaments distinct, glabrous, or hairy on proximal 1/2; anthers shortly cylindrical or globose, 0.3–0.6 mm. Pistillate flowers: abaxial nectary (0–) 0.2–0.3 mm, adaxial nectary narrowly oblong or oblong, 0.3–1.1 mm, longer or shorter than stipe, nectaries distinct or connate and shallowly cupshaped; stipe 0.3–1.1 mm; ovary pyriform or ovoid, glabrous, beak abruptly tapering to styles; ovules 11–18 per ovary; styles connate to distinct, 0.2–0.4 mm; stigmas broadly cylindrical or 2 plump lobes, 0.08–0.24–0.32 mm. Capsules 2.2–7.5 mm. 2n = 38.


Phenology: Flowering late Jun-mid Aug.
Habitat: Snowbeds and places with good snow protection, well-drained riverbanks, sandy beaches, granite boulder ridges, steep bouldery slopes, or in marshes, usually on non-calcareous substrates, places exposed to sea-spray
Elevation: 0-1700 m

Distribution

V7 62-distribution-map.gif

Greenland, Man., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., Nunavut, Que., Maine, N.H., Europe (British Isles), Europe (Russia), Europe (Scandinavia), Europe (Spitzbergen), Atlantic Islands (Iceland)

Discussion

Salix herbacea is the only willow with an amphi-Atlantic distribution. Disjunct populations occur as far west as Great Bear and Great Slave lakes, Northwest Territories. Macrofossils show that, during the late-Wisconsinan period, it occurred in North America along the glacial margin between Minnesota (R. G. Baker et al. 1999) and Cambridge, Massachusetts (G. W. Argus and M. B. Davis 1962). D. J. Beerling (1998) provided a comprehensive review of its biology and ecology.

Hybrids:

Salix herbacea forms natural hybrids with S. arctica, S. argyrocarpa, S. fuscescens, and S. uva-ursi.

Salix herbacea × S. uva-ursi (S. ×peasei Fernald) was described from Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, but occurs also in northern Quebec (G. W. Argus, unpubl.). It is morphologically intermediate between the parents. Its distinctly crenulate, broadly obovate leaves are similar to those of S. herbacea, its catkins are smaller and have fewer flowers than those of S. uva-ursi but more flowers than those of S. herbacea, its leaves are sparsely glaucous abaxially, and it has stems stouter than those of S. uva-ursi.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"-0.32mm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Salix herbacea"
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
connate +  and distinct +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
oblong +  and ovate +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
dull +, glossy to almost +  and glossy +
red turning yellow +
globose +  and cylindrical +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
entire +  and truncate +
Retuse (?) +, Rounded (?) +, Toothed (?) +  and Convex (?) +
George W. Argus +
Linnaeus +
rounded +, convex +, cordate +  and subcordate +
Salix sect. Chamaetia +
tapering +
toothed +  and 2-fid +
persistent +
redbrown +  and violet +
subglobose +  and globose +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br /> (0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br />) +
flowered +, pistillate +  and staminate +
0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
pendulous +, spreading +  and erect +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Snowbed willow +
Greenland +, Man. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, Nunavut +, Que. +, Maine +, N.H. +, Europe (British Isles) +, Europe (Russia) +, Europe (Scandinavia) +, Europe (Spitzbergen) +  and Atlantic Islands (Iceland) +
0-1700 m +
hairy +  and glabrous +
brown +, light rose +  and tawny +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
pistillate +  and staminate +
bisexual +  and unisexual +
spherical +
Snowbeds and places with good snow protection, well-drained riverbanks, sandy beaches, granite boulder ridges, steep bouldery slopes, or in marshes, usually on non-calcareous substrates, places exposed to sea-spray +
ferruginous +  and white +
cylindrical +, ribbonlike +  and flattened +
unbranched +  and spicate +
subterminal +  and axillary +
membranaceous +
2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br /> (3.4 cm34 mm <br />0.034 m <br />) +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br />) +
elliptic +, subcircular +  and circular +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
arranged +  and alternate +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
marcescent +
deciduous +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
crenate +, crenulate +  and flat +
connate +  and distinct +
2-7[-10]-carpellate +
ovoid +  and pyriform +
glandular-dotted +
flat;convex;flat;convex +
Flowering late Jun-mid Aug. +
overlapping +
distinct +
Illustrated +
branched +, sympodial +, monopodial +  and branching +
non-papillate +
cylindrical +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
caducous +  and persistent +
connate +  and distinct +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
persistent +  and deciduous +
ferruginous +  and white +
Salix sect. Retusae +
Salix herbacea +
Salix sect. Herbella +
species +
rounded +
sympodial +, branching +  and heterophyllous +