Salix nigra

Marshall

Arbust. Amer., 139. 1785.

Common names: Black willow
WeedyIllustrated
Synonyms: Salix nigra var. falcata (Pursh) Torrey Salix nigra var. lindheimeri C. K. Schneider
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 36. Mentioned on page 24, 31, 34, 37, 38, 42, 43, 47.

Trees, 5–20+ m. Stems: branches highly brittle at base, redbrown to yellowbrown, glabrous; branchlets gray-brown to redbrown, glabrous or pilose to villous. Leaves: stipules rudimentary or foliaceous on early ones, usually foliaceous on late ones, (glands few or absent adaxially), apex acuminate, acute, or rounded; petiole (margins covering groove, with spherical glands distally), (2–) 3–10 (–15) mm, glabrous or pilose adaxially; largest medial blade (sometimes amphistomatous), very narrowly elliptic, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, or linear to lorate, (50–) 70–103 (–190) × (6–) 7.5–17 (–23) mm, 6–13 times as long as wide, base cuneate to convex, margins serrulate, apex acuminate, acute, or caudate, abaxial surface (not glaucous), glabrous or pilose, hairs white or ferruginous, wavy, adaxial slightly glossy, glabrous or pilose (especially on midribs); proximal blade margins serrulate; juvenile blade glabrous or pilose abaxially, hairs white and/or ferruginous. Catkins: staminate 35–83 × 7–13 mm, flowering branchlet 5–35 mm; pistillate 23–74 (–80 in fruit) × 5–10 mm, flowering branchlet 6–35 mm; floral bract 1–3 mm, apex acute or rounded, entire, abaxially sparsely hairy, hairs wavy; pistillate bract deciduous after flowering. Staminate flowers: abaxial nectary 0.3–1 mm, adaxial nectary oblong to ovate, 0.2–0.6 mm, nectaries distinct or connate and shallowly cupshaped; stamens 4–6; filaments hairy on proximal 1/2 or basally; anthers 0.4–0.6 mm, (axes strongly recurved). Pistillate flowers: adaxial nectary oblong, (swollen), 0.2–0.5 mm; stipe 0.5–1.5 mm; ovary pyriform to obclavate, (rarely pilose), beak slightly bulged below styles; ovules 12–16 per ovary; styles 0.1–0.3 mm; stigmas (sometimes 2 plump lobes), 0.2–0.28–0.36 mm. Capsules 3–5 mm. 2n = 38.


Phenology: Flowering (south) early Feb-early May, (north) late Mar-early Jul.
Habitat: Floodplains, edges of ponds and lakes, swamps, marshes, white cedar bogs, wet meadows, open fields, roadside ditches, mixed upland deciduous woods along streams
Elevation: 10-1400 m

Distribution

V7 24-distribution-map.gif

N.B., Ont., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Mexico (Chihuahua)

Discussion

Hybrids:

Salix nigra forms natural hybrids with S. alba, S. amygdaloides, S. caroliniana, S. gooddingii, and S. lucida.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"-0.36mm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Salix nigra"
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
pilose +  and glabrous +
oblong +  and ovate +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
Rounded (?) +, Acute (?) +, Caudate (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
George W. Argus +
Marshall +
cuneate +  and convex +
ferruginous +  and white +
pilose +  and glabrous +
toothed +  and 2-fid +
deciduous +
redbrown +  and yellowbrown +
pilose +  and villous +
slender +  and stout +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
pistillate +  and staminate +
2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br /> (7.4 cm74 mm <br />0.074 m <br />) +
pendulous +, spreading +  and erect +
slender +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Black willow +
N.B. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and Mexico (Chihuahua) +
10-1400 m +
connate +  and distinct +
greenish +  and tawny +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
pistillate +  and staminate +
bisexual +  and unisexual +
spherical +
Floodplains, edges of ponds and lakes, swamps, marshes, white cedar bogs, wet meadows, open fields, roadside ditches, mixed upland deciduous woods along streams +
ferruginous +  and white +
unbranched +  and spicate +
subterminal +  and axillary +
membranaceous +
amphistomatous +  and hypostomatous +
linear +  and elliptic +
lanceolate +, lorate +, ovate +  and oblong +
arranged +  and alternate +
10.3 cm103 mm <br />0.103 m <br /> (19 cm190 mm <br />0.19 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
marcescent +
deciduous +
70mm;103mm +
pilose +  and glabrous +
lanceolate +  and narrowly lanceolate or linear +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
connate +  and distinct +
rudimentary +
2-7[-10]-carpellate +
villous +  and glabrous +
pyriform +  and obclavate +
glandular-dotted +
Flowering (south) early Feb-early May, (north) late Mar-early Jul. +
Arbust. Amer., +
overlapping +
distinct +
Weedy +  and Illustrated +
branched +, sympodial +, monopodial +  and branching +
non-papillate +
cylindrical +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
caducous +  and persistent +
distinct +  and connate +
tapering +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
persistent +  and deciduous +
ferruginous +  and white +
Salix nigra var. falcata +  and Salix nigra var. lindheimeri +
Salix nigra +
Salix sect. Humboldtianae +
species +
rounded +
sympodial +, branching +  and heterophyllous +