Schedonorus arundinaceus

(Schreb.) Dumort.
Common names: Tall fescue Fétuque élevée
Synonyms: Lolium arundinaceum Festuca elatior var. arundinacea Aristata Festuca elatior Festuca arundinacea
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 24. Treatment on page 448.

Plants perennial, sometimes rhizomatous. Culms to 1.5 (2) m. Leaves convolute in young shoots; auricles ciliate, having at least 1 or 2 hairs along the margins; ligules 1 (2) mm; blades 11-30 cm long, 4-12 mm wide. Panicles 10-35 cm; branches at the lowest node usually 2, shorter branch with (1) 2-9 (13) spikelets, longer branch with (3) 4-13 (19) spikelets. Spikelets 8-15.5 mm long, 2-3.5 mm wide, with 3-6 (9) florets. Lower glumes 3-6 mm; upper glumes 4.5-7 (9) mm; lemmas (4) 5-9 (11.5) mm, usually scabrous or hispidulous, at least distally, rarely smooth, awns absent or to 4 mm, terminal or attached up to 0.4 mm below the apices; paleas slightly shorter than to slightly longer than the lemmas; anthers 2.5-4 mm. Caryopses 2-4 mm long, 0.9-1.6 mm wide. 2n = 28, 42, 56, 63, 70.

Distribution

Conn., N.J., N.Y., Wash., Del., D.C., Wis., W.Va., Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Md., Fla., Wyo., N.H., N.Mex., Tex., La., N.C., Kans., Nebr., Tenn., Alta., B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.), N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Pa., Alaska, Nev., Va., Colo., Calif., Ala., Ark., Vt., Ill., Ga., Iowa, Okla., Ariz., Idaho, Maine, Mont., Oreg., Mass., Ohio, Utah, Mo., Minn., Mich., Miss., S.C., Ky., S.Dak.

Discussion

Schedonorus arundinaceus is a Eurasian species that has been introduced to the Flora region. It is grown for forage, soil stabilization, and coarse turf. It is now cultivated in all but the coldest and most arid parts of North America, and often escapes. It is frequently infected with the endophytic fungi Neotyphodium coenophialum, which confers insect and drought resistance to the plant, among other benefits; it also produces ergot alkaloids that are toxic to livestock. Varieties with endophyte strains that do not produce toxic ergot alkaloids have been developed (Nihsen et al. 2004).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number.

... more about "Schedonorus arundinaceus"
70 +, 63 +, 56 +, 42 +  and 28 +
membranous +  and scarious +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
2 +  and 1 +
Stephen J. Darbyshire +
(Schreb.) Dumort. +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
straight +
attached +
subterminal +  and terminal +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
not evident +
cross +, linear +  and narrowly lanceolate +
4mm;12mm +
spikelike +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Tall fescue +  and Fétuque élevée +
not branching +
erect +  and decumbent +
slender +  and stout +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (150 cm1,500 mm <br />1.5 m <br />) +
not woody +
Conn. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Wash. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Wis. +, W.Va. +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +, Md. +, Fla. +, Wyo. +, N.H. +, N.Mex. +, Tex. +, La. +, N.C. +, Kans. +, Nebr. +, Tenn. +, Alta. +, B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Pa. +, Alaska +, Nev. +, Va. +, Colo. +, Calif. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Vt. +, Ill. +, Ga. +, Iowa +, Okla. +, Ariz. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Mont. +, Oreg. +, Mass. +, Ohio +, Utah +, Mo. +, Minn. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, S.C. +, Ky. +  and S.Dak. +
1/5 +  and 1/3 +
liquid +, soft +  and hard +
capillary +
pistillate +  and staminate +
sometimes longer +
3 +  and 6 +
sterile +  and bisexual +
compressed +
reduced +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
rounded +, lanceolate +  and oblong +
unequal +
membranous +
uncinate +
not spikelike +
hispidulous +  and scabrous +
rounded +, oblong +, ovate +  and lanceolate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
membranous +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
lanceolate +  and ovate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
concealed +  and prominent +
2 +  and 1 +
well-developed +
slightly shorter than to slightly longer than the lemmas +
2-keeled +
membranous +
narrower +
spikelike +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
dry +  and fleshy +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.55 cm15.5 mm <br />0.0155 m <br />) +
4 +  and 13 +
compressed +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
2mm +  and 3.5mm +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
simple +  and compound +
2 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
Lolium arundinaceum +, Festuca elatior var. arundinacea +, Aristata +, Festuca elatior +  and Festuca arundinacea +
Schedonorus arundinaceus +
Schedonorus +
species +
membranous +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
parallel +  and converging +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +